Window Types

A wide range of window types are available to satisfy the ever-increasing scope of architectural requirements. There are many materials, sizes, arrangements, details, and specific features from which to choose.
Types of windows (see symbols Fig. 11.38) include:
Pivoted windows, an economical, industrial window used where a good tight closure is not of major importance (Fig. 11.39). Principal members of metal window units are usually 13⁄8 in deep, with frame and vent corners and muntin joints riveted.
However, when frame and vent corners are welded, principal members may be 11⁄4 in deep. Vents are pivoted about 2 in above the center. These windows are adaptable to multiunits, both vertical and horizontal, with mechanical operation. Bottom of vent swings out and top swings in. No provision is made for screening. Putty glazing is placed inside.
Commercial projected windows, similar to pivoted windows (Fig. 11.40).
These are an industrial-type window but also are used for commercial buildings where economy is essential. Vents are balanced on arms that afford a positive and easy control of ventilation and can be operated in groups by mechanical operators.
Maximum opening is about 35. Factory provision is made for screens.
Security windows, an industrial window for use where protection against burglary is important, such as for factories, garages, warehouses, and rear and side elevations of stores (Fig. 11.41). They eliminate the need for separate guard bars.

They consist of a grille and ventilated window in one unit. Maximum grille openings are 7 x 16 in. The ventilating section, either inside or outside the grille, is bottom-hinged or projected. Muntins are continuous vertically and horizontally.
Factory provision is made for screening. Glazing is placed from the inside. Basement and utility windows, economy sash designed for use in basements, barracks, garages, service stations, areaways, etc. (Figs. 11.42 and 11.43). Ventilator opens inward and is easily removed for glazing or cleaning, or to provide a clear opening for passage of materials. Center muntin is optional. Screens are attached on the outside.

Architectural projected windows, a medium-quality sash used widely for commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings (Figs. 11.44 and 11.45). Ventilator arrangement permits cleaning from inside and provides a good range of ventilation control with easy operation.
Steel ventilator sections are usually  11⁄4 in deep, with corners welded.


Frames may be 13⁄8 in deep when riveted or 11⁄4 in deep when welded.
Screens are generally furnished at extra cost. Glazing may be either inside or outside.
Intermediate projected windows, high-quality ventilating sash used for schools, hospitals, commercial buildings, etc. (Figs. 11.46 and 11.47). When made of metal, corners of frames and ventilators are welded. Depth of frame and vent sections varies from ‘‘intermediate’’ to ‘‘heavy intermediate,’’ depending on the manufacturer. Each vent is balanced on two arms pivoted to the frame and vent.


The arms are equipped with friction shoes arranged to slide in the jamb sections.
Screens are easily attached from inside. All cleaning is done from the inside. Glazing is set from the outside. Double insulating glass is optional.
Psychiatric projected windows, for use in housing mental patients, to provide protection against exit but minimizing appearance of restraint (Fig. 11.48). Ventilators open in at the top, with a maximum clear opening of 5 to 6 in. Glazing is set outside. Screens also are placed on the outside but installed from inside. Metal casing can be had completely assembled and attached to window ready to install.

Outside glass surfaces are easily washed from the inside.

Detention windows, designed for varying degrees of restraint and for different lighting and ventilating requirements.
The guard type (Fig. 11.49) is particularly adaptable to jails, reform schools, etc. It provides security against escape through window openings. Ventilators are attached to the inner face of the grille and can be had with a removable key-locking device for positive control by attendants. Screens are installed from inside between vent and grille. Glazing is done from outside, glass being omitted from the grille at the vent section.


Residential double-hung windows
(Figs. 11.30 to 11.32 and 11.50), available in different designs and weights to meet various service requirements for all types of buildings. When made of metal, the frame and ventilator corners are welded and weathertight. These windows are also used in combination with fixed picture windows for multiple window openings. They are usually equipped with weather stripping, which maintains good weathertightness. Screens and storm sash are furnished in either full or half sections. Glazing is done from outside.
Residence casements, available in various types, sizes, and weights to meet service requirements of homes, apartments, hotels, institutions, commercial buildings, etc. (Fig. 11.51). Rotary or lever operations hold the vent at the desired position, up to 100% opening. Screens and storm sash are attached to the inside of casement. Extended hinges on vents permit cleaning from inside. Glazing is done from outside.

Intermediate combination windows, with side-hinged casements and projected- in ventilators incorporated to furnish flexibility of ventilation control, used extensively for apartments, offices, hospitals, schools, etc., where quality is desired (Fig. 11.52). They are available in several weights with rotary or handle operation.


When made of metal, corners of vents and frames are welded. Factory provision is made for screens. All cleaning is done from inside. Glazing is set from outside.
Special glazing clips permit use of double insulating glass.
Intermediate casements, a heavier and better quality than residence casements, used particularly for fine residences, apartments, offices, institutions, and similar buildings (Fig. 11.53). Frames and ventilators of metal units have welded corners.

Easy control of ventilation is provided by rotary or handle operation. Extended hinges permit safe cleaning of all outside surfaces from inside. Screens are attached or removed from inside. Single or double glazing is set from outside.

Awning windows, suitable for residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial buildings (Fig. 11.54), furnishing approximately 100% opening for ventilation. Mechanical operation can provide for the bottom vent opening prior to the other vents, which open in unison. This is desirable for night ventilation.
Manual operation can be had for individual or group venting. All glass surfaces are easily cleaned from inside through the open vents. Glazing is set from outside, storm sash and screens from inside.
Jalousie windows (Fig. 11.55) combine unobstructed vision with controlled ventilation and are used primarily for sunrooms, porches, and the like where protection from the weather is desired with maximum fresh air. The louvers can be secured in any position. Various kinds of glass, including obscure and colored, often are used for privacy or decoration. They do not afford maximum weathertightness but can be fitted with storm sash on the inside. Screens are furnished interchangeable with storm sash.
Ranch windows, particularly suited to modern home design and also used effectively in other types of buildings where more light or better view is desired (Fig. 11.56). When made of metal, corners of frames and vents are welded. Depth of sections vary with manufacturers. These windows are designed to accommodate insulating glass or single panes. Screens are attached from inside.

Continuous top-hung windows, used for top lighting and ventilation in monitor and sawtooth roof construction (Fig. 11.57). They are hinged at the top to the structural-steel framing members of the building and swing outward at the bottom.
Two-foot lengths are connected end to end on the job. Mechanical operators may be either manual or motor-powered. Sections may be installed as fixed windows.
Glazing is set from outside.

Additional types of windows (not illustrated) include:
Vertical pivoted, which sometimes are sealed with a rubber or plastic gasket.
Horizontal sliding sash usually in aluminum or wood for residential work.
Vertical folding windows, which feature a flue action for ventilation.
Double-hung windows with removable sash, which slide up and down, or another type which tilts for ventilation but does not slide.
Austral type, with sash units similar to double-hung but which operate in unison as projected sash. The sash units are counterbalanced on arms pivoted to the frame, the top unit projecting out at bottom and the bottom unit projected in at top.
Picture windows, often a combination of fixed sash with or without auxiliary ventilating units.
Store-front construction, usually semicustom-built of stock moldings of stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, or wood.

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