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Section 1 System Fundamentals

——1.1 Principles of Architecture
——1.2 Systems Design and Analysis
——1.3 Traditional Design Procedures
——1.4 Traditional Construction Procedures
——1.5 Role of the Client in Design and Construction
——1.6 Building Costs
——1.7 Major Building Systems
——1.8 Value Engineering
——1.9 Execution of Systems Design
——1.10 Building Codes
——1.11 Zoning Codes
——1.12 Other Regulations
——1.13 Systems Design by Team
——1.14 Project Peer Review
——1.15 Application of Systems Design

Section 2 The Building Team-Managing the Building Process

—–2.1 Professional and Business Requirements of Architectural Engineers
—–2.2 Client Objectives for Buildings
—–2.3 Program Definition
—–2.4 Organization of the Building Team
—–2.5 Client-A/E Agreement
—–2.6 A/E Liability and Insurance
—–2.7 Definition of Project Phases
—–2.8 Scheduling and Personnel Assignments
—–2.9 Accelerated Design and Construction
—–2.10 Design Management
—–2.11 Internal Record Keeping
—–2.12 Codes and Regulations
—–2.13 Permits
—–2.14 Energy Conservation
—–2.15 The Interior Environment
—–2.16 Cost Estimating and Value Engineering
—–2.17 Technical Specifications
—–2.18 Upfront Documents
—–2.19 Quality Control for Architects and Engineers
—–2.20 Bidding and Contract Award
—–2.21 Construction Scheduling
—–2.22 Shop Drawing Review
—–2.23 Role of Architect or Engineer During Construction
—–2.24 Testing and Balancing of Building Systems
—–2.25 Postconstruction Operation and Maintenance
—–2.26 Record Drawings
—–2.27 Follow-Up Interviews
—–2.28 Management of Disputes
—–2.29 Professional Ethics

Section 3 Protection against Hazards

—–3.1 Risk Management
—–3.2 Wind Protection
—–3.3 Protection against Earthquakes
—–3.4 Protection against Water
—–3.5 Protection against Fire
—–3.6 Lightning Protection
—–3.7 Protection against Intruders

Section 4 Building Materials

—–4.1 Types of Cementitious Materials
—–4.2 Portland Cements
—–4.3 Aluminous Cements
—–4.4 Natural Cements
—–4.5 Limes
—–4.6 Low-Temperature Gypsum Derivatives
—–4.7 Oxychloride Cements
—–4.8 Masonry Cements
—–4.9 Fly Ashes
—–4.10 Silica Fume (Microsilica)
—–4.11 Normal-Weight Aggregates
—–4.12 Heavyweight and Lightweight Aggregates
—–4.13 Chemical and Mineral Admixtures
—–4.14 Fibers for Concrete Mixes
—–4.15 Miscellaneous Admixtures
—–4.16 Mortars
—–4.17 Portland-Cement Concrete
—–4.18 Polymer Concretes
—–4.19 Concrete Masonry Units
—–4.20 Brick-Clay or Shale
—–4.21 Structural Clay Tile
—–4.22 Ceramic Tiles
—–4.23 Architectural Terra Cotta
—–4.24 Properties of Building Stones
—–4.25 Freezing and Thawing of Stone
—–4.26 Gypsumboard
—–4.27 Gypsum Lath
—–4.28 Gypsum Sheathing Board
—–4.29 Gypsum Partition Tile or Block
—–4.30 Gypsum Plank
—–4.31 Window Glass
—–4.32 Glass Block
—–4.33 Mechanical Properties of Wood
—–4.34 Effects of Hygroscopic Properties of Wood
—–4.35 Commercial Grades of Wood
—–4.36 Destroyers and Preservatives
—–4.37 Glues and Adhesives for Wood
—–4.38 Plywood and Other Fabricated Wood Boards
—–4.39 Wood Bibliography
—–4.40 Types of Irons and Steels
—–4.41 Properties of Structural Steels
—–4.42 Heat Treatment and Hardening of Steels
—–4.43 Effects of Grain Size
—–4.44 Steel Alloys
—–4.45 Welding Ferrous Materials
—–4.46 Effects of Steel Production Methods
—–4.47 Effects of Hot Rolling
—–4.48 Effects of Punching and Shearing
—–4.49 Corrosion of Iron and Steel
—–4.50 Steel and Steel Alloy Bibliography
—–4.50.1 Aluminum and aluminum based alloys
—–4.51 Aluminum-Alloy Designations
—–4.52 Finishes for Aluminum
—–4.53 Structural Aluminum
—–4.54 Welding and Brazing of Aluminum
—–4.55 Bolted and Riveted Aluminum Connections
—–4.56 Prevention of Corrosion of Aluminum
—–4.57 Aluminum Bibliography
—–4.58 Copper
—–4.59 Brass
—–4.60 Nickel Silvers
—–4.61 Cupronickel
—–4.62 Bronze
—–4.63 Copper Bibliography
—–4.64 Applications of Lead
—–4.65 Lead Bibliography
—–4.66 Properties of Nickel and Its Alloys
—–4.67 Nickel Bibliography
—–4.68 General Properties of Plastics
—–4.69 Fillers and Plasticizers
—–4.70 Molding and Fabricating Methods for Plastics
—–4.71 Thermosetting Plastics
—–4.72 Thermoplastic Resins
—–4.73 Elastomers, or Synthetic Rubbers
—–4.74 High-Pressure Laminates
—–4.75 Reinforced Plastics
—–4.76 Laminated Rubber
—–4.77 Plastics Bibliography
—–4.78 Porcelain Enamel on Metal
—–4.79 Porcelain Bibliography
—–4.80 Asphalts for Dampproofing and Waterproofing
—–4.81 Bituminous Roofing
—–4.82 Asphalt Shingles
—–4.83 Asphalt Mastics and Grouts
—–4.84 Bituminous Pavements
—–4.85 Asphalt Bibliography
—–4.86 Calking Compounds
—–4.87 Sealants
—–4.88 Gaskets
—–4.89 Joint Seals Bibliography
—–4.90 Vehicles or Binders
—–4.91 Pigments for Paints
—–4.92 Resins for Paints
—–4.93 Coatings Bibliography

Section 5 Structural Theory

—–5.1 Design Loads
—–5.2 Stress and Strain
—–5.3 Stresses at a Point
—–5.4 Torsion
—–5.5 Straight Beams
—–5.6 Curved Beams
—–5.7 Buckling of Columns
—–5.8 Graphic-Statics Fundamentals
—–5.9 Roof Trusses
—–5.10 General Tools for Structural Analysis
—–5.11 Continuous Beams and Frames
—–5.12 Load Distribution to Bents and Shear Walls
—–5.13 Finite-Element Methods
—–5.14 Stresses in Arches
—–5.15 Thin-Shell Structures
—–5.16 Cable-Supported Structures
—–5.17 Air-Stabilized Structures
—–5.18 Structural Dynamics
—–5.19 Earthquake Loads
—–5.20 Floor Vibrations
—–5.21 Wiss and Parmelee Rating Factor for Transient Vibrations
—–5.22 Reiher-Meister Scale for Steady-State Vibrations
—–5.23 Murray Criterion for Walking Vibrations

Section 6 Soil Mechanics and Foundations

—–6.1 Introduction to Soil Mechanics and Foundations
—–6.2 Field Exploration
—–6.3 Soil Mechanics and Foundations Laboratory Testing
—–6.4 Effective Stress and Stress Distribution
—–6.5 Settlement Analyses
—–6.6 Bearing Capacity Analyses
—–6.7 Retaining Walls
—–6.8 Foundations
—–6.9 Foundation Excavations
—–6.10 Grading and Other Site Improvement Methods
—–6.11 Geosynthetics

Section 7 Structural Steel Construction

—–7.1 Codes and Specifications
—–7.2 Mill Materials
—–7.3 Fasteners
—–7.4 Fabrication
—–7.5 Quality Assurance
—–7.6 Wall Bearing Framing
—–7.7 Skeleton Framing
—–7.8 Long-Span Framing
—–7.9 Steel and Concrete Framing
—–7.10 Bracing Design Considerations
—–7.11 Frame Bracing
—–7.12 Bracing for Individual Members
—–7.13 Floor-Framing Design Considerations
—–7.14 Roof Framing Systems
—–7.15 Bases for ASD and LRFD
—–7.16 Design Aids and References
—–7.17 Serviceability Criteria
—–7.18 Tension Members
—–7.19 Columns and Other Compression Members
—–7.20 Beams and Other Flexural Members
—–7.21 Plate Girders
—–7.22 Web or Flange Load-Bearing Stiffeners
—–7.23 Bearing
—–7.24 Combined Axial Compression and Bending
—–7.25 Combined Axial Tension and Bending
—–7.26 Composite Construction
—–7.27 Members Subject to Torsion
—–7.28 Members Subject to Cyclic Loading
—–7.29 Combinations of Fasteners
—–7.30 Load Capacity of Bolts
—–7.31 Load Capacity of Welds
—–7.32 Bearing-Type Bolted Connections
—–7.33 Slip-Critical Bolted Connections
—–7.34 Eccentrically Loaded Welded Connections
—–7.35 Types of Beam Connections
—–7.36 Beams Splices
—–7.37 Column Splices
—–7.38 Erection Equipment
—–7.39 Clearance for Erecting Beams
—–7.40 Erection Sequence
—–7.41 Field-Welding Procedures
—–7.42 Erection Tolerances
—–7.43 Adjusting Lintels
—–7.44 Corrosion of Steel
—–7.45 Painting Steel Structures
—–7.46 Paint Systems
—–7.47 Field-Painting Steel
—–7.48 Steel in Contact with Concrete
—–7.49 Effect of Heat on Steel
—–7.50 Fire Protection of Exterior
—–7.51 Materials for Improving Fire Resistance
—–7.52 Pierced Ceilings and Floors
—–7.53 Fire-Resistance Ratings

Section 8 Cold-Formed Steel Construction

—–8.1 Material for Cold-Formed Steel Shapes
—–8.2 Utilization of Cold Work of Forming
—–8.3 Types of Cold-Formed Shapes
—–8.4 Some Basic Concepts of Cold-Formed Steel Design
—–8.5 Structural Behavior of Flat Compression Elements
—–8.6 Unstiffened Cold-Formed Elements Subject to Local Buckling
—–8.7 Stiffened Cold-Formed Elements Subject to Local Buckling
—–8.8 Application of Effective Widths
—–8.9 Maximum Flat-Width Ratios of Cold-Formed Steel
—–8.10 Unit Stresses for Cold-Formed Steel
—–8.11 Laterally Unsupported Cold-Formed Beams
—–8.12 Allowable Shear Strength in Webs
—–8.13 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members
—–8.14 Combined Axial and Bending Stresses
—–8.15 Welding of Cold-Formed Steel
—–8.16 Arc Welding of Cold-Formed Steel
—–8.17 Resistance Welding of Cold-Formed Steel
—–8.18 Bolting of Cold-Formed Steel Members
—–8.19 Self-Tapping Screws for Joining Sheet Steel Components
—–8.20 Special Fasteners for Cold-Formed Steel
—–8.21 Steel Roof Deck
—–8.22 Cellular Steel Floor and Roof Panels
—–8.23 Corrugated Sheets for Roofing, Siding, and Decking
—–8.24 Lightweight Steel Metric Sheeting
—–8.25 Stainless Steel Structural Design
—–8.26 Characteristics of Preengineered Steel Buildings
—–8.27 Structural Design of Preengineered Buildings
—–8.28 Design of Open-Web Steel Joists
—–8.29 Construction Details for Open-Web Steel Joists

Section 9 Concrete Construction

—–9.1 Cementitious Materials
—–9.2 Cements
—–9.3 Aggregates
—–9.4 Proportioning Concrete Mixes
—–9.5 Yield Calculation
—–9.6 Properties and Tests of Fresh (Plastic) Concrete
—–9.7 Properties and Tests of Hardened Concrete
—–9.8 Measuring and Mixing Concrete Ingredients
—–9.9 Admixtures
—–9.10 Mix Design
—–9.11 Check Tests of Materials
—–9.12 At the Mixing Plant-Yield Adjustments
—–9.13 At the Placing Point-Slump Adjustments
—–9.14 Strength Tests
—–9.15 Test Evaluation
—–9.16 Responsibility for Formwork
—–9.17 Materials and Accessories for Forms
—–9.18 Loads on Formwork
—–9.19 Form Removal and Reshoring
—–9.20 Special Forms
—–9.21 Inspection of Formwork
—–9.22 Reinforcing Bars
—–9.23 Welded-Wire Fabric (WWF)
—–9.24 Prestressing Steel
—–9.25 Fabrication and Placing of Rebars
—–9.26 Bar Supports
—–9.27 Inspection of Reinforcement
—–9.28 Good Practice
—–9.29 Methods of Placing
—–9.30 Excess Water
—–9.31 Consolidation
—–9.32 Concreting Vertical Elements
—–9.33 Concreting Horizontal Elements
—–9.34 Bonding to Hardened Concrete
—–9.35 Heavy-Duty Floor Finishes
—–9.36 Concreting in Cold Weather
—–9.37 Concreting in Hot Weather
—–9.38 Curing Concrete
—–9.39 Joints in Concrete
—–9.40 Inspection of Concrete Placement
—–9.41 Analyses of One-Way Floor and Roof Systems
—–9.42 Two-Way Slab Frames
—–9.43 Special Analyses
—–9.44 Strength Design with Factored Loads
—–9.45 Allowable-Stress Design at Service Loads (Alternative Design Method)
—–9.46 Strength Design for Flexure
—–9.47 Shear in Flexural Members
—–9.48 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members
—–9.49 Development, Anchorage, and Splices of Reinforcement
—–9.50 Crack Control
—–9.51 Deflection of Reinforced-Concrete Beams and Slabs
—–9.52 Analysis and Design of One-Way Slabs
—–9.53 Embedded Pipes in One-Way Slabs
—–9.54 Standard Sizes of Joists
—–9.55 Design of One-Way Concrete-Joist Construction
—–9.56 Reinforcement of Joists for Flexure
—–9.57 Shear in Joists
—–9.58 Wide-Module Joist Construction
—–9.59 Analysis and Design of Flat Plates
—–9.60 Flat Slabs
—–9.61 Two-Way Slabs on Beams
—–9.62 Estimating Guide for Two-Way Construction
—–9.63 Definitions of Flexural Members
—–9.64 Flexural Reinforcement
—–9.65 Reinforcement for Shear and Flexure
—–9.66 Reinforcement for Torsion and Shear
—–9.67 Crack Control in Beams
—–9.68 Bearing Walls
—–9.69 Nonbearing Walls
—–9.70 Cantilever Retaining Walls
—–9.71 Counterfort Retaining Walls
—–9.72 Retaining Walls Supported on Four Sides
—–9.73 Types of Foundations
—–9.74 General Design Principles for Foundations
—–9.75 Spread Footings for Walls
—–9.76 Spread Footings for Individual Columns
—–9.77 Combined Spread Footings
—–9.78 Strap Footings
—–9.79 Mat Foundations
—–9.80 Pile Foundations
—–9.81 Drilled-Pier Foundations
—–9.82 Basic Assumptions for Strength Design of Columns
—–9.83 Design Requirements for Columns
—–9.84 Column Ties and Tie Patterns
—–9.85 Biaxial Bending of Columns
—–9.86 Slenderness Effects on Concrete Columns
—–9.87Economy in Column Design
—–9.88 Deep Beams
—–9.89 Shear Walls
—–9.90Reinforced-Concrete Arches
—–9.91 Reinforced-Concete Thin Shells
—–9.92 Concrete Folded Plates
—–9.93 Slabs on Grade
—–9.94 Seismic-Resistant Concrete Construction
—–9.95 Composite Flexural Members
—–9.96 Design Methods for Precast Members
—–9.97 Reinforcement Cover in Precast Members
—–9.98 Tolerances for Precast Construction
—–9.99 Accelerated Curing
—–9.100Precast Floor and Roof Systems
—–9.101 Precast Ribbed Slabs, Folded Plates, and Shells
—–9.102 Wall Panels
—–9.103 Lift Slabs
—–9.104 Basic Principles of Prestressed Concrete
—–9.105 Losses in Prestress
—–9.106 Allowable Stresses at Service Loads
—–9.107Design Procedure for Prestressed-Concrete Beams
—–9.108 Flexural-Strength Design of Prestressed Concrete
—–9.109 Shear-Strength Design of Prestressed Concrete
—–9.110 Bond, Development, and Grouting of Tendons
—–9.111 Application and Measurement of Prestress
—–9.112 Concrete Cover in Prestressed Members

Section 10 Wood Construction

—–10.1 Basic Characteristics of Wood
—–10.2 Sectional Properties of Wood Products
—–10.3 Design Values for Lumber and Timber
—–10.4 Structural Grading of Wood
—–10.5 Adjustment Factors for Structural Members
—–10.6 Pressure-Preservative Treatments for Wood
—–10.7 Design Provisions for Flexural Members
—–10.8 Wood Compression Members
—–10.9 Tension Members
—–10.10 Combined Bending and Axial Loading
—–10.11 Bearing Stresses
—–10.12 Structural Panels
—–10.13 Design Values for Mechanical Connections
—–10.14 Adjustment of Design Values for Connections
—–10.15 Bolts
—–10.16 Lag Screws
—–10.17 Split-Ring and Shear-Plate Connectors
—–10.18 Wood Screws
—–10.19 Nails and Spikes
—–10.20 Structural Framing Connections
—–10.21 Glued Fastenings
—–10.22 Wood Trusses
—–10.23 Design of Timber Arches
—–10.24 Timber Decking
—–10.25 Wood-Frame Construction
—–10.26 Permanent Wood Foundations
—–10.27 Post Frame and Pole Construction
—–10.28 Design for Fire Safety
—–10.29 Timber Fabrication and Erection
—–10.30 Engineered Glued Wood Products

Section 11 Wall, Floor and Ceiling Systems

—–11.1 Masonry Definitions
—–11.2 Quality of Materials for Masonry
—–11.3 Construction of Masonry
—–11.4 Lateral Support for Masonry Walls
—–11.5 Chimneys and Fireplaces
—–11.6 Provisions for Dimensional Changes
—–11.7 Repair of Leaky Joints
—–11.8 Masonry-Thickness Requirements
—–11.9 Determination of Masonry Compressive Strength
—–11.10 Allowable Stresses in Masonry
—–11.11 Floor-Wall Connections
—–11.12 Glass Block
—–11.13 Masonry Bibliography
—–11.14 Stud-Wall Construction
—–11.15 Sheathing
—–11.16 Functional Requirements of Curtain Walls
—–11.17 Wood Facades
—–11.18 Wall Shingles and Siding
—–11.19 Stucco
—–11.20 Precast-Concrete or Metal and Glass Facings
—–11.21 Sandwich Panels
—–11.22 Types of Partitions
—–11.23 Structural Requirements of Partitions
—–11.24 Plaster and Gypsumboard Construction Terms
—–11.25 Plaster Finishes
—–11.26 Gypsumboard Finishes
—–11.27 Isolation and Control Joints in Gypsumboard Construction
—–11.28 Types of Ceramic Tile
—–11.29 Tile Installation Methods
—–11.30 Plywood Finishes
—–11.31 Other Types of Panel Finishes
—–11.32 Asphalt Tiles
—–11.33 Cork Tiles
—–11.34 Vinyl Flooring
—–11.35 Rubber Flooring
—–11.36 Installation of Thin Coverings
—–11.37 Carpets
—–11.38 Terrazzo
—–11.39 Concrete Floors
—–11.40 Wood Floors
—–11.41 Industrial Floors
—–11.42 Conductive Flooring
—–11.43 Specifications and Standards for Flooring
—–11.44 Window Selection
—–11.45 Window Definitions
—–11.46 Modular Coordination of Windows
—–11.47 Window Sash Materials
—–11.48 Glazing
—–11.49 Window Types
—–11.50 Windows in Wall-Panel Construction
—–11.51 Mechanical Operators for Windows
—–11.52 Traffic Flow and Safety
—–11.53 Structural Requirements for Openings and Doors
—–11.54 Ordinary Doors
—–11.55 Fire and Smokestop Doors
—–11.56 Revolving Doors
—–11.57 Large Horizontally Sliding Doors
—–11.58 Large Vertically Sliding Doors
—–11.59 Large Swinging Doors
—–11.60 Horizontally Hinged Doors
—–11.61 Radiation-Shielding Doors
—–11.62 Selection of Hardware
—–11.63 Effects of Codes and Regulations on Hardware
—–11.64 Standards for Finishing Hardware
—–11.65 Hinges and Butts
—–11.66 Door-Closing Devices
—–11.67 Locks, Latches and Keys
—–11.68 Window Hardware
—–11.69 Inserts, Anchors and Hangers
—–11.70 Nails
—–11.71 Screws
—–11.72 Welded Studs
—–11.73 Powder-Driven Studs
—–11.74 Bolts
—–11.75 Sound Production and Transmission
—–11.76 Nomenclature for Analysis of Sound
—–11.77 Sound Characteristics and Effects on Hearing
—–11.78 Measurement of Sound
—–11.79 Sound and Vibration Control
—–11.80 Acoustical Performance Data
—–11.81 Acoustical Criteria
—–11.82 Helpful Hints for Noise Control

Section 12 Roof Systems

—–12.1 Roof Decks
—–12.2 Vapor Retarders
—–12.3 Roof Insulation
—–12.4 Low-Slope Roof Coverings
—–12.5 Steep-Slope Roof Coverings
—–12.6 Need for Familiarity with Roof Design
—–12.7 Building Owners’ Responsibility
—–12.8 Building-Code Provisions for Roofs
—–12.9 Effects of Climate
—–12.10 Effects of Roof Size, Shape, and Slope
—–12.11 Deck Suitability
—–12.12 Effects of Rooftop Traffic
—–12.13 Esthetic Considerations
—–12.14 Effects of Wind on Roofs
—–12.15 Protected Membrane Roofs and Plaza Decks
—–12.16 Preroofing Conference
—–12.17 Roofing Warranties
—–12.18 Roof Maintenance
—–12.19 Reroofing

Section 13 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

—–13.1 Definitions of Terms of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
—–13.2 Heat and Humidity
—–13.3 Major Factors in HVAC Design
—–13.4 Ventilation
—–13.5 Movement of Air with Fans
—–13.6 Duct Design
—–13.7 Heat Losses
—–13.8 Heat Gains
—–13.9 General Procedure for Sizing a Heating Plant
—–13.10 Heating-Load-Calculation Example
—–13.11 Warm-Air Heating
—–13.12 Hot-Water Heating Systems
—–13.13 Steam-Heating Systems
—–13.14 Unit Heaters
—–13.15 Radiant Heating
—–13.16 Snow Melting
—–13.17Radiators and Convectors
—–13.18 Heat Pumps
—–13.19 Solar Heating
—–13.20 Sizing an Air-Conditioning Plant
—–13.21 Refrigeration Cycles
—–13.22 Air-Distribution Temperature for Cooling
—–13.23 Condensers
—–13.24 Compressor-Motor Units
—–13.25 Cooling Equipment-Central Plant Packaged Units
—–13.26 Zoning
—–13.27 Packaged Air-Conditioning Units
—–13.28 Absorption Units for Cooling
—–13.29 Ducts for Air Conditioning
—–13.30 Built-Up Air-Conditioning Units
—–13.31 Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) Systems
—–13.32 Air-Water Systems
—–13.33 Control Systems for Air Conditioning
—–13.34 Heating and Air Conditioning
—–13.35 Control of Computerized HVAC Systems
—–13.36 Direct Digital Control
—–13.37 Industrial Air Conditioning
—–13.38 Chemical Cooling
—–13.39 Year-Round Air Conditioning

Section 14 Plumbing—Water-Supply, Sprinkler, and Wastewater Systems

—–14.1 Plumbing and Fire Prevention Codes
—–14.2 Health Requirements for Plumbing
—–14.3 Water Quality
—–14.4 Water Treatment
—–14.5 Water Quantity and Pressures
—–14.6 Water Distribution in Buildings
—–14.7 Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
—–14.8 Water Demand and Fixture Units
—–14.9 Water-Pipe Sizing
—–14.10 Domestic Water Heaters
—–14.11 Wastewater Disposal
—–14.12 Sewers
—–14.13 Wastewater-System Elements
—–14.14 Waste-Pipe Materials
—–14.15 Layout of Waste Piping
—–14.16 Interceptors
—–14.17 Piping for Indirect Wastes
—–14.18 Rainwater Drainage
—–14.19 Waste-Pipe Sizing
—–14.20 Venting
—–14.21 Plumbing-System Inspection and Tests
—–14.22 Gas Supply
—–14.23 Gas-Pipe Sizes
—–14.24 Estimating Gas Consumption
—–14.25 Gas-Pipe Materials
—–14.26 Sprinkler Systems
—–14.27 Automatic Sprinklers
—–14.28 Types of Sprinkler Systems
—–14.29 Pipe System Design
—–14.30 Standpipes
—–14.31 Water Supplies for Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems
—–14.32 Central Station Supervisory Systems
—–14.33 Additional Information

Section 15 Electrical Systems

—–15.1 Electrical Power
—–15.2 Direct-Current Systems
—–15.3 Alternating-Current Systems
—–15.4 Electrical Loads
—–15.5 Emergency Power
—–15.6 Electrical Conductors and Raceways
—–15.7 Power System Apparatus
—–15.8 Electrical Distribution in Buildings
—–15.9 Circuit and Conductor Calculations
—–15.10 Light and Sight
—–15.11 Quality of Light
—–15.12 Color Rendering with Lighting
—–15.13 Quantity of Light
—–15.14 Lighting Methods
—–15.15 Daylight
—–15.16 Characteristics of Lamps
—–15.17 Characteristics of Lighting Fixtures
—–15.18Systems Design of Lighting
—–15.19 Special Electrical Systems

Section 16 Vertical Circulation

—–16.1 Classification of Vertical Circulation Systems
—–16.2 Ramps
—–16.3 Stairs
—–16.4 Escalators
—–16.5 Elevator Installations
—–16.6 Definitions of Elevator Terms
—–16.7 Elevator Hoistways
—–16.8 Elevator Cars
—–16.9 Electric Elevators
—–16.10 Hydraulic Elevators
—–16.11 Planning for Passenger Elevators
—–16.12 Dumbwaiters
—–16.13 Conveyers and Pneumatic Tubes
—–16.14 Mail Chutes

Section 17 Construction Project Management

—–17.1 Types of Construction Companies
—–17.2 Construction Company Organization
—–17.3 Contractors’ Business Consultants
—–17.4 Sources of Business
—–17.5 What Constitutes the Contract Documents?
—–17.6 Major Concerns with Building Codes
—–17.7Estimating, Bidding, and Costs
—–17.8 Types of Bids and Contracts
—–17.9 Professional Construction Managers
—–17.10 Contract Administration
—–17.11 Purchase Orders
—–17.12 Scheduling and Expediting
—–17.13 Fast Tracking
—–17.14 Changes, Claims, and Dispute Resolution
—–17.15 Insurance
—–17.16 Construction Contract Bonds
—–17.17 Trade Payment Breakdowns and Payments
—–17.18 Cost Records
—–17.19 Accounting Methods
—–17.20 Safety
—–17.21 Community Relations
—–17.22 Relations with Public Agencies in Executing Construction Operations
—–17.23 Labor Relations
—–17.24 Social and Environmental Concerns in Construction
—–17.25 Systems Building
—–17.26 Basics of Successful Management

Section 18 Communications Systems

—–18.1 Communications System Glossary
—–18.2 Grounding
—–18.3 Communications Room and Communications Closet Layout
—–18.4 Wiring Diagrams
—–18.5 Fiberoptic Cable
—–18.6 Fiberoptic Connectors
—–18.7 Horizontal Cabling
—–18.8 Budget

Section 19 Construction Cost Estimating

—–19.1 Composition of Project Price
—–19.2 Estimating Direct Costs
—–19.3 Estimating Contingency Costs
—–19.4 Estimating Margin (Markup)
—–19.5 Sample Estimate
—–19.6 Reviewing Estimates
—–19.7 Computer Estimating