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  • The following is the list of some of the IS code giving requirements for building materials:
    IS 269–1989. Specification for ordinary portland cement.
    IS 455–1989. Specification for portland slag cement.
    IS 516–1959. Method of tests for strength of concrete.
    IS 1123–1975. Method of identification of natural building stones.
    IS 383–1970. Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates.
    IS 432–1982. Specification for mild steel.
    IS 3495–1976. Gives specifications for building bricks.
    IS 287–1973. Gives maximum permissible moisture content in timber for different zone and for different uses.

  • The following codes help engineers to design buildings:
    1. IS 456–2000. It is code of practice for the design of plain and reinforced concrete. It was first brought out in 1953. It was revised in 1957, 1984 and the latest revision is in the year 2000.
    It gives specifications or specifies the other codes for the requirement of various materials used in making concrete. It classifies concrete into various grades based on 28 days concrete cube strength. It specifies the methods and care to be taken in transporting, placing, compacting and using of concrete. It gives general design considerations, special design requirements and gives design procedure for various structural elements by limit state method approach.
    Both strength and serviceability requirements are to be satisfied in the design.
    IS 800–2007: It titled as General Construction in steel-code and practice. To achieve efficient and optimum standards for structural steel products, Indian Standard Institution initiated action in 1950 and was able to bring out a code in 1956. The code was revised in 1962, 1984 and the latest revision is in the year 2007. It gives guidelines for various class of steel, loads to be considered in the design and
    the method of designing steel members by limit state method. It gives the serviceability requirements to be fulfilled in the design.
    IS 875–1984: It is the Indian Code of practice for Design Loads for Building and Structures. It is available in five parts. Specifications are available for taking loads such as dead loads, live loads, wind loads, snow loads, crane loads etc. Dead load depends upon the type of structures and also on the part of structure. Wind loads and snow loads depend upon the region, location of site, slopes of building roof, height of building etc. The code gives the guidelines for determining these loads on the building to be designed. Code also gives the combination of loads to be considered in the building design.
    IS 1343–1980: It is the code of practice for prestressed concrete. It gives guidelines for selecting materials, specifies workmanship, inspection and testing. General design requirements and limit state method for structural design are presented. Requirements for durability are also specified.
    IS 1893–2002: It gives criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. IS 4928–1993 is the code of practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings. IS 13827–1992 gives guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Cost Strength Masonry Buildings.
    IS 13920–1997: It is the code of practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced concrete structures subjected to Seismic Forces. IS 13935–1993 gives guidelines for Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings.


  • Disaster resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction means taking steps to mitigate the problems of victims after the disaster disappears.
    Victims need help and assistance to return to their homes after disaster period is over. They may be helped to build their damaged houses. If it is flood prone area, they may be provided sites at new settlement areas which are safe. Financial assistance may be mobilized for constructing houses. The new area should be developed by providing approach roads, water supply and electricity.
    Loss of lives and crop should be compensated. New settlement should have school and hospital facilities. All efforts should be made to get normalcy restored.


  • Disaster rescue and relief means taking steps to face the distress situation after the disaster has taken place. Volunteer groups, police force or military teams are organised to

    Rescue the people trapped.
    • Rendering first aid to wounded
    • Donating blood
    • Organizing clearing up so that normalcy returns.

    • Locating places where dead bodies can be kept until they are disposed off.
    The groups should know that victims are demoralized, anxious and depressed. The volunteers have to win the confidence of victims and carry out rescue operations.
    The officers carrying out rescue and relief measures should have good leadership qualities and quick decision taking abilities. Emergency announcements should be made. Required rescue teams should be formed and guided. Higher authorities informed about the situation continuously. Mobilize national resources, if necessary. They should undertake steps for compensation and maintenance of rescue operations.


  • Disaster mitigation means minimizing the painfulness which occur due to disaster. After the disaster the people face the following problems:

    1. Shelters are completely or partially damaged
    2. Food is not available when required
    3. Drinking water shortage is felt.
    4. Diseases spread.
    5. Communication systems are affected.

    To mitigate the misery of the affected people the following steps are to be taken:
    1. Provide temporary accommodation with water supply, sanitary and electricity facilities.
    2. Extend manpower, material and financial assistance to repair/build their houses.
    3. During the expected period of cyclones and floods, store up at least seven day stock of essential food articles, medicines and water supply.
    4. Continue to listen to warning bulleting and keep in touch with local officials.
    5. Be ready to evacuate people to places of safety when advised.
    6. Remove damaged and decayed parts of trees to make them resist wind and reduce the potential for damage.
    7. Before cyclone season starts carry out all necessary repairs to the building.
    8. Keep valuables and documents in containers which cannot be damaged by water.
    9. Talk to children and explain about cyclone/floor. Remain calm.
    10. Fishermen are advised not to venture into the sea during cyclone warning period.
    11. Avoid taking shelter near old and damaged building or near trees.
    12. Do not touch power lines.


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