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  • These are also clay products like brick but are thin. Depending upon their use, building tiles may be further classified as
    1. Roofing tiles
    2. Flooring tiles and wall tiles.
    1. Roofing Tiles: Roofing tiles are used to cover sloping roofs. They are supported on wooden reapers. Sometimes light gauge steel or steed rods are also used as reapers. After supporting on reapers these tiles should be strong enough to take load of a man safely. The tiles should he leak proof. Normally these tiles are having curved surface having ribbed sections, so that with thin section they are sufficiently

    strong to resist the load. However many times flat tiles are used under curved/ribbed tiles. These tiles are not subjected to load directly. They serve in reducing adverse thermal effects. Mangalore, Allahabad tiles, and corrugated tiles are popularly used roofing tiles [Ref. Fig. 5.2]. Allahabad tiles are generally laid side by side and the joints are covered with half round tiles.

    Mangalore tiles are red in colour and they are of interlocking type. These tiles are manufactured in Mangalore, Calicut, Cochin and Gujarat. Corrugated tiles satisfy the requirements of appearance and leak proof but they can be easily blown away by wind.

    The desirable properties of the roofing tiles are:

    1. they should not absorb moisture more than 20 per cent by weight.
    2. they should give pleasing look.
    3. they should be capable of taking load of a man safely, after they are supported on reapers.
    4. they should be durable.
    5. they should be uniform in shape and size.
    6. warpage should not exceed 2% along the edges and 1.5% along the diagonal.

    2. Flooring Tiles and Wall Tiles: These tiles are manufactured by burning pressed green tiles twice. First they are burnt at 700°C. Then they are dipped in the glaze solution and again burnt at 1250°C to fuse them with glaze. The thickness of these tiles vary from 15 to 20 mm. These tiles are flat and they have pleasing appearance. There are two types of flooring tiles:

    (a) Glazed Tiles: These tiles are used as finish surfaces for floors and walls in kitchen and bathrooms.
    These tiles are glazed and are provided with attractive colours and designs.

    (b) Mosaic Tiles: These are precast concrete tiles with marble chips on the top surface. After fixing these tiles polishing is done.
    The desirable properties of flooring and roofing tiles are:
    1. Tolerance for length = ± 5 mm.
    2. Tolerance for thickness = ± 2 mm.
    3. Should be uniform in shape and colour.
    4. They should be sound, hard and durable.
    5. They should have very low percentage of water absorption.
    6. They should give a clear ringing sound when struck with each other.
    7. They should show good resistance to abrassion.

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  • Solid and hollow concrete blocks are manufactured in factories to meet the requirements of building blocks in cities and towns. These blocks may be called as artificial stones, since they replace the stones in the masonry construction. They are manufactured with lean mixes of cement, sand and aggregates of sizes less than 12 mm. Instead of sharp edged aggregates, round aggregates are professed in the manufacture of these blocks. The properties and uses of these blocks is given in this article.

    (i) Solid Concrete Blocks: Solid concrete blocks of size 400 mm × 200 mm × 150 mm are commonly manufactured. To reduce the weight of the block no fine concretes are preferred. No fine concrete is the concrete in which fine aggregate is not used, but round aggregates of size less than 12 mm are used. IS:2185 (part I) 1983 covers the requirement, for such blocks.
    The blocks should satisfy the strength requirement of 4 N/mm2. Their density should be as low as possible, so that handling is not difficult. They should have sharp edges which are at right angles to each other.
    These blocks are used for load nearing wall construction also.

    (ii) Hollow Concrete Blocks: To reduce the weight of concrete blocks, they may be made hollow as shown in Fig. 5.1. Hollow blocks of sizes 400 mm × 200 mm × 190 mm (nominal size 400 × 200 × 200 mm) and also of sizes 400 mm × 300 mm × 190 mm (nominal size 400 × 300 × 200 mm) are manufactured. IS:2185 (part I) 1983 covers the specifications for these blocks.
    These block need richer mixes. Fine aggregates upto 60% and coarse aggregates upto 40% are used.

    These blocks also should satisfy the strength requirement of 4 N/mm2. They should have truely right angled corners.
    Advantage of using concrete blocks is that the construction activity is fast. Mortar requirement for finishing the surface is less. Pointing alone is sufficient, in other words plastering is not necessary.
    Table 5.2 gives the differences between solid and hollow concrete blocks.

    Both solid and hollow blocks can be used for the construction of load bearing as well as partition
    walls. They are ideally suited for the construction of compound walls.

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  • Varnish is the solution of resins or resinous substances like amber, copal, shellac, gum resin etc. in solvents like oil, turpentile, alcohol etc. Depending upon the solvents used varnishes are classified as, oil varnishes, turpentile varnishes, spirit varnishes and water varnishes. The desirable characteristics of an ideal varnish are

    1. It should give glossy surface.
    2. Should be durable.
    3. It should dry rapidly after application.
    4. It should not develop cracks after drying.
    It is commonly used on wooden surfaces.


  • Distempers are the cheaper variety of paints in which chalk is used as base and water is used as a carrier.
    The emulsifying agent which is commonly used is glue or casein. Distempers are available in powder They are to be mixed with hot water before use.
    The surface to be distempered should be thoroughly rubbed and cleaned. The cracks, if any should be filled by lime putty. The surface should be kept dry for about two months before applying distemper. Thus a primary coat is applied and is allowed to dry. Distemper is usually applied in two coats.

    Properties of Distemper

    1. They are generally light in colour.
    2. The coatings are generally thick.
    3. They give reflective coating.
    4. They are less durable than oil paints but are cheaper.


  • Paints are applied on the surfaces of timber, metals and plastered surfaces as a protective layer and at the same time to get pleasant appearance. Paints are applied in liquid form and after sometime the volatile constituent evaporates and hardened coating acts as a protective layer.

    Constituents of Paint

    The essential constituents of paints are:
    1. Base 2. A vehicle 3. A pigment
    4. A drier and 5. A thinner.

    1. Bases: It is a principal constituent of paint. It also possesses the binding properties. It forms an opaque coating. Commonly used bases for paints are white lead, red lead, zinc oxide, iron oxide, titanium white, aluminium powder and lithophone. A lead paint is suitable for painting
    iron and steel works, as it sticks to them well. However it is affected by atmosphere action and hence should not be used as final coat. While zinc forms good base but is costly.
    Lithophone, which is a mixture of zinc sulphate and barytes, is cheap. It gives good appearance but is affected by day light. Hence it is used for interior works only.
    2. Vehicles: The vehicles are the liquid substances which hold the ingredients of a paint in liquid suspension and allow them to be applied on the surface to be painted. Linseed oil, Tung oil and Nut oil are used as vehicles in paints. Of the above four oils, linseed oil is very
    commonly used vehicles. Boiling makes the oil thicker and darker. Linseed oil reacts with oxygen and hardens by forming a thin film.
    3. Pigment: Pigments give required colour for paints. They are fine particles and have a reinforcing effect on thin film of the paint. The common pigments for different colours are:
    Black—Lamp black, suit and charcoal black.
    Red—venedion red, red lead and Indian red.
    Brown—burned timber, raw and burned sienna
    Green—chrome green, copper sulphate.
    Blue—prussian blue and ultra marine
    Yellow—ochre and chrome yellow.
    4. The Drier: These are the compounds of metal like lead, manganese, cobalt. The function of a drier is to absorb oxygen from the air and supply it to the vehicle for hardening. The drier should not be added until the paint is about to be used. The excess drier is harmful because it destroys elasticity and causes flaking.
    5. The Thinner: It is known as solvent also. It makes paint thinner and hence increases the coverage. It helps in spreading paint uniformly over the surface Terpentine and neptha are commonly used thinners. After paint applied, thinner evaporates and paint dries.

    Properties of an Ideal Paint

    1. It should be possible to apply easily and freely.
    2. It should dry in reasonable time.
    3. It should form hard and durable surface.
    4. It should not be harmful to the health of workers.
    5. It should not be easily affected by atmosphere.
    6. It should possess attractive and pleasing appearance.
    7. It should form a thin film of uniform nature i.e., it should not crack.
    8. It should possess good spreading power.
    9. It should be cheap.

    Types of Paints

    Depending upon their constituents there are various types of paints. A brief description of some of them
    which are commonly used are given below:
    1. Oil Paint: These paints are applied in three co
    ats-primer, undercoat and finishing coat. The presence of dampness while applying the primer adversely affect the life of oil paint. This paint is cheap and easy to apply.

    2. Enamel Paint: It contains white lead, oil, petroleum spirit and resinous material. The surface provided by it resists acids, alkalies and water very well. It is desirable to apply a coat of titanium white before the coat of enamel is applied. It can be used both for external and internal walls.

    3. Emulsion Paint: It contains binding materials such as polyvinyl acetate, synthetic resins etc.
    It dries in 1,5 to 2 hours and it is easy to apply. It is more durable and can be cleaned with water. For plastered surfaces, first a coat of cement paint should be applied and then the emulsion point. Emulsion paint needs sound surfaces.

    4. Cement Paint: It is available in powder form. It consists of white cement, pigment and other additives. It is durable and exhibits excellent decorative appearance. It should be applied on rough surfaces rather than on smooth surfaces. It is applied in two coats. First coat is applied on wet surface but free from excess water and allowed to dry for 24 hours. The second coat is then applied which gives good appearance.

    5. Bituminous Paints: This type of paint is manufactured by dissolving asphalt or vegetable bitumen in oil or petroleum. It is black in colour. It is used for painting iron works under water.

    6. Synthetic Rubber Paint: This paint is prepared from resins. It dries quickly and is little affected by weather and sunlight. It resists chemical attack well. This paint may be applied even on fresh concrete. Its cost is moderate and it can be applied easily.

    7. Aluminium Paint: It contains finely ground aluminium in spirit or oil varnish. It is visible in
    darkness also. The surfaces of iron and steel are protected well with this paint. It is widely used for painting gas tanks, water pipes and oil tanks.

    8. Anti-corrossive Paint: It consists essentially of oil, a strong dier, lead or zinc chrome and finely ground sand. It is cheap and resists corrossion well. It is black in colour.

    Application of Paint

    Preparation of surface for application of paint is the most important part in painting. The surface to be painted should not be oily and it should be from flakes of the old paint. Cracks in the surface should be filled with putty and then with sand paper. Then primer is applied. Painting work should be carried out in dry weather. The under coats and first coats must be allowed to dry before final coat is applied.

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