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  • The Unified Soil Classification System is based on the airfield classification system developed by A. Casagrande during World War II. With some modification it was jointly adopted by several U.S. government agencies in 1952. Additional refinements were made and it is currently standardized as ASTM D 2487-93. It is used in the U.S. and much of the world for geotechnical work other than roads and highways.

    In the unified system soils are designated by a two-letter symbol: the first identifies the primary component of the soil, and the second describes its grain size or plasticity characteristics. For example, a poorly graded sand is designated SP and a low plasticity clay is CL. Five first-letter symbols are used:

    G for gravel
    S for sand
    M for silt
    C for clay
    O for organic soil

    Clean sands and gravels (having less than 5% passing the No. 200 sieve) are given a second letter P if poorly graded or W if well graded. Sands and gravels with more than 12% by weight passing the No. 200 sieve are given a second letter M if the fines are silty or C if fines are clayey. Sands and gravels having between 5 and 12% are given dual classifications such as SP-SM. Silts, clays, and organic soils are given the second letter H or L to designate high or low plasticity. The specific rules for classification are summarized as follows and described in detail in ASTM D 2487. Organic soils are distinguished by a dark-brown to black color, an organic odor, and visible fibrous matter.

    For soils that are not notably organic the first step in classification is to consider the percentage passing the No. 200 sieve. If less than 50% of the soil passes the No. 200 sieve, the soil is coarse grained, and the first letter will be G or S; if more than 50% passes the No. 200 sieve, the soil is fine grained and the first letter will be M or C.

    For coarse-grained soils, the proportions of sand and gravel in the coarse fraction (not the total sample) determine the first letter of the classification symbol. The coarse fraction is that portion of the total sample retained on a No. 200 sieve. If more than half of the coarse fraction is gravel (retained on the No. 4 sieve), the soil is gravel and the first letter symbol is G. If more than half of the coarse fraction is sand, the soil is sand and the first letter symbol is S.

    For sands and gravels the second letter of the classification is based on gradation for clean sands and gravels and plasticity of the fines for sands and gravels with fines.

    For clean sands (less than 5% passing the No. 200 sieve), the classification is well-graded sand (SW) if C u ≥ 6 and 1 £ C c £ 3. Both of these criteria must be met for the soil to be SW, otherwise the classification is poorly graded sand (SP). Clean gravels (less than 5% passing the No. 200 sieve) are classified as well-graded gravel (GW) if Cu ≥ 4 and 1 £ Cc £ 3. If both criteria are not met, the soil is poorly graded gravel (GP).

    For sands and gravels where more than 12% of the total sample passes the No. 200 sieve, the soil is a clayey sand (SC), clayey gravel (GC), silty sand (SM), or silty gravel (GM). The second letter is assigned based on whether the fines classify as clay (C) or silt (M) as described for fine-grained soils below.

    For sands and gravels having between 5 and 12% of the total sample passing the No. 200 sieve, both the gradation and plasticity characteristics must be evaluated and the soil is given a dual classification such as SP-SM, SP-SC, GW-GC, etc. The first symbol is always based on gradation, whereas the second is always based on plasticity.

    For fine-grained soils and organic soils, classification in the unified system is based on Atterberg limits determined by the fraction passing the No. 40 sieve. The liquid limit and plasticity index are determined and plotted on the plasticity chart (Fig. 15.2). The vertical line at LL = 50 separates high-plasticity soils from low-plasticity soils. The A-line separates clay from silt. The equation of the A-line is PI = 0.73(LL – 20). The U-line is not used in classification but is an upper boundary of expected results for natural soils. Values plotting above the U-line should be checked for errors. Inorganic soils with liquid limits below 50 that plot above the A-line and have PI values greater than 7 are lean clays and are designated CL; those with liquid limits above 50 that plot above the A-line are fat clays and are designated CH. Inorganic soils with liquid limits below 50 that plot below the A-line are silt and are designated ML; those with liquid limits above 50 that plot below the A-line are elastic silts and are designated MH. The plasticity chart has a shaded area; soils that plot in this area (above the A-line with PI values between 4 and 7) are silty clay and are given the dual symbol CL-ML. If the soilunder consideration is the fines component of a dually classified sand or gravel, the soil is classified as SM-SC or GM-GC.

    Soils with sufficient organic contents to influence properties that have liquid limits below 50 are classified as OL; those with liquid limits above 50 are classified as OH. Soils that are predominantly organic, with visible vegetable tissue, are termed peat and given the designation Pt.

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  • Sand is a natural product which is obtained as river sand, nalla sand and pit sand. However sea sand should not be used for the following reasons:
    1. It contains salt and hence structure will remain damp. The mortar is affected by efflorenscence and blisters appear.
    2. It contains shells and other organic matter, which decompose after some time, reducing the life of the mortar.
    Sand may be obtained artificially by crushing hard stones. Usually artificial sand is obtained as a by-product while crushing stones to get jelly (coarse aggregate).
    Sand is used in mortar and concrete for the following purpose:
    1. It sub-divides the paste of binding material into thin films and allows it to adhere and spread.
    2. It fills up the gap between the building blocks and spreads the binding material.
    3. It adds to the density of the mortar.
    4. It prevents the shrinkage of the cementing material.
    5. It allows carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to reach some depth and thereby improve setting power.
    6. The cost of cementing material per unit volume is reduced as this low cost material increases the volume of mortar.
    7. Silica of sand contributes to formation of silicates resulting into the hardened mass.
    The properties of good sand are:
    1. It should be chemically inert.
    2. It should be free from organic or vegetable matter.
    3. It should be free from salt.
    4. It should contain sharp, angular and coarse grains.
    5. It should be well graded.
    6. It should be hard.



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