The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)

The Unified Soil Classification System is based on the airfield classification system developed by A. Casagrande during World War II. With some modification it was jointly adopted by several U.S. government agencies in 1952. Additional refinements were made and it is currently standardized as ASTM D 2487-93. It is used in the U.S. and much of the world for geotechnical work other than roads and highways. In the unified system [&hellip

Sand

Sand is a natural product which is obtained as river sand, nalla sand and pit sand. However sea sand should not be used for the following reasons: 1. It contains salt and hence structure will remain damp. The mortar is affected by efflorenscence and blisters appear. 2. It contains shells and other organic matter, which decompose after some time, reducing the life of the mortar. Sand may be obtained artificially [&hellip