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Chapter 1 Design Policy
1-1 General 1-1
1-2 Responsibility 1-1
1-3 Hydraulic Reports 1-2
1-4 Storm Frequency Policy 1-4
Chapter 2 Hydrology
2-1 General Hydrology 2-1
2-2 Selecting A Method 2-2
2-3 Drainage Basin 2-2
2-4 The Rational Method 2-3
2-4.1 General 2-3
2-5 Santa Barbara Urban Hydrograph Method 2-13
2-6 Published Flow Records 2-14
2-7 USGS Regression Equations 2-14
2-8 Flood Reports 2-15
2-9 Mean Annual Runoff 2-16
Appendixes
USGS Streamflow Gage Peak Flow Records 2-1-1
USGS Regression Equation Data and Mean Annual Runoff Data 2-2-1
Chapter 3 Culvert Design 3-1
3-1 Overview 3-1
3-1.1 Metric Units and English Units 3-1
3-2 Culvert Design Documentation 3-2
3-2.1 Common Culvert Shapes and Terminology 3-2
3-2.2 Hydraulic Reports 3-3
3-2.3 Required Field Data 3-3
3-2.4 Engineering Analysis 3-4
3-3 Hydraulic Design of Culverts 3-4
3-3.1 Culvert Design Flows 3-5
3-3.2 Allowable Headwater 3-6
3-3.3 Tailwater Conditions 3-8
3.3.4 Flow Control 3-8
3-3.5 Velocity in Culverts — General 3-34
3-3.6 Culvert Hydraulic Calculations Form 3-41
Contents
Page ii Hydraulics Manual
January 1997
Page
3-3.8 Example 3-47
3-4 Culvert End Treatments 3-51
3-4.1 Projecting Ends 3-51
3-4.2 Beveled End Sections 3-52
3-4.3 Flared End Sections 3-52
3-4.4 Headwalls and Slope Collars 3-53
3-4.5 Wingwalls and Aprons 3-53
3-4.6 Improved Inlets 3-54
3-4.7 Energy Dissipators 3-54
3-4.8 Culvert Debris 3-55
3-5 Miscellaneous Culvert Design Considerations 3-58
3-5.1 Multiple Culvert Openings 3-58
3-5.2 Camber 3-58
3-5.3 Minimum Culvert Size 3-59
3-5.4 Alignment and Grade 3-59
3-5.5 Angle Points 3-60
3-5.6 Upstream Ponding 3-60
Chapter 4 Open Channel Flow 4-1
4-1 General 4-1
4-2 Determining Channel Velocities 4-1
4-2.1 Field Measurement 4-2
4-2.2 Manning’s Equation 4-3
4-3 Critical Depth 4-6
4-4 River Backwater Analysis 4-9
4-5 River Stabilization 4-10
4-5.1 Bank Barbs 4-11
4-5.2 Drop Structures 4-15
4-5.3 Riprap Bank Protection 4-18
Appendix
Manning’s Roughness Coefficients (n) 4-1-1
Chapter 5 Drainage of Highway Pavements 5-1
5-1 Roadway and Structure Geometrics and Drainage 5-1
5-2 Computing Runoff for Highway Pavements 5-2
5-3 Rural Highway Drainage 5-2
5-3.1 Slotted Drains and Trench Systems 5-3
5-3.2 Drop Inlets 5-4
5-4 Gutter Flow 5-4
5-5 Grate Inlets 5-6
5-5.1 Capacity of Inlets on a Continuous Grade 5-7
5-5.2 Capacity of Inlets in Sag Locations 5-10
Contents
Hydraulics Manual Page iii
January 1997
Page
Chapter 6 Storm Drains 6-1
6-1 Introduction 6-1
6-2 Design Features 6-1
6-3 Data for Hydraulics Report 6-3
6-4 Storm Drain Design — Handheld Calculator Method 6-4
6-4.1 General 6-4
6-4.2 Location 6-4
6-4.3 Discharge 6-4
6-4.4 Drain Design Section 6-7
6-4.5 Drain Profile 6-8
6-4.6 Remarks 6-8
6-5 Storm Drain Design — Computer Analysis 6-8
6-6 Hydraulic Grade Line 6-9
6-6.1 Friction Losses in Pipes 6-10
6-6.2 Junction Entrance and Exit Losses 6-11
6-6.3 Losses from Changes in Direction of Flow 6-11
6-6.4 Losses from Multiple Entering Flows 6-12
6-7 Drywells 6-13
6-8 Construction Materials and Practices for Drains 6-14
6-8.1 Structural Design 6-14
6-8.2 Pipe Materials for Storm Drains 6-14
6-8.3 Pipe Joints for Storm Drains 6-15
6-8.4 Testing Storm Drains 6-15
6-9 Subsurface Drainage 6-15
Chapter 7 Fish Passage 7-1
7-1 Introduction 7-1
7-2 Types of Structures 7-2
7-2.1 General 7-2
7-2.2 Bridges 7-2
7-2.3 Open Bottom Culverts 7-3
7-2.4 Full Culverts 7-4
7-3 Design Flows 7-5
7-4 Existing Culverts 7-7
7-5 Grade Control Structures 7-8
Chapter 8 Pipe Materials 8-1
8-1 Classification of Pipe 8-1
8-1.1 Drain Pipe 8-1
8-1.2 Underdrain Pipe 8-1
8-1.3 Culvert Pipe 8-2
8-1.4 Storm Sewer Pipe 8-6
8-1.5 Sanitary Sewer Pipe 8-6
Contents
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January 1997
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8-2 Pipe Materials 8-7
8-2.1 Concrete Pipe 8-7
8-2.2 Metal Pipe — General 8-8
8-2.3 Thermoplastic Pipe — General 8-11
8-2.4 Ductile Iron Pipe 8-14
8-3 Pipe Alternates 8-14
8-4 Pipe Corrosion Zones and Pipe Alternate Selection 8-15
8-4.1 Corrosion Zone I 8-15
8-4.2 Corrosion Zone II 8-16
8-4.3 Corrosion Zone III 8-18
8-5 Corrosion 8-24
8-5.1 pH 8-25
8-5.2 Resistivity 8-25
8-5.3 Methods For Controlling Corrosion 8-25
8-6 Abrasion 8-27
8-7 Pipe Joints 8-30
8-8 Pipe Anchors 8-30
8-9 Pipe Rehabilitation 8-31
8-10 Pipe Design 8-31
8-10.1 Categories of Structural Materials 8-31
8-10.2 Structural Behavior of Flexible Pipes 8-31
8-10.3 Structural Behavior of Rigid Pipes 8-32
8-10.4 Foundation, Bedding, and Backfill 8-33
8-10.5 Structural Analysis and Fill Height Tables 8-34
8-10.6 Pipe Cover 8-34
8-10.7 Shallow Cover Installation 8-34
8-11 Fill Height Tables 8-36
Chapter 9 Highway Rest Areas 9-1
9-1 General 9-1
9-2 Submittal 9-1
9-2.1 Water Supply System — Data Requirements 9-1
9-2.2 Sewage Disposal System — Data Requirements 9-2
9-3 Water Supply
9-3.1 Test Well
9-3.2 Water Demands at Rest Areas
9-3.3 Reservoirs
9-4 Sewage Disposal
9-4.1 Municipal Sewer Systems
9-4.2 Long Distance Pressure Sewers
9-4.3 Septic Tank and Drainfield
9-4.4 Sewage Lagoons