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1 The development of construction procedures

—–1.1 The nature of civil engineering work
—–1.2 The most widely used contracts for construction
—–1.3 Other long-standing procedures
———-Lump sum construction contracts
———-Cost reimbursement contracts
———-Design and build contracts
—–1.4 Growing use of design, build and operate contracts
—–1.5 Developments in the later 1980s
—–1.6 New approaches to construction contracts in the 1990s
—–1.7 Introduction of ‘Private Finance Initiative’
—–1.8 Public–Private Partnerships
—–1.9 Partnering
—–1.10 Project Management
—–1.11 Operational or service contracts and ‘Facilities Management’
—–1.12 Framework Agreements
—–1.13 Influence of computers and information technology
—–1.14 A criticism of certain systems
—–1.15 Ancillary contractual practices

2 Procedures for design and construction

—–2.1 Promoter’s obligations
—–2.2 Importance of feasibility studies
—–2.3 Options for design:
———-(a) Design by promoter or a consultant *
———-(b) Outline designs provided with detailed design by others *
———-(c) Layout design by promoter; detailed design by contractor *
———-(d) Functional specification by promoter: design by contractor *
—–2.4 Options for construction:
———-(a) Direct labour construction *
———-(b) Construction divided into trades *
———-(c) Main civil contractor supplies all ancillary services *
———-(d) Civil contractor constructs; promoter orders plant separately *
———-(e) Civil contractor orders all plant *
———-(f) Plant supplier arranges building design and construction *
—–2.5 Construction using forms of management contracting
———-(a) Construction management *
———-(b) Management contracting *
—–2.6 Design and build procedures and other options
———-(a) Design and build or ‘turn-key’ contracts *
———-(b) Design, build and operate contracts *
———-(c) Engineer, procure and construct contracts *
———-(d) Partnering *
———-(e) ‘Term’ or ‘Serial’ contracting *
—–2.7 Comment on possible arrangements

3 Payment arrangements, risks and project cost estimating

—–3.1 Methods of payment under different types of contract
———-(a) Rates only contracts
———-(b) Rates and prices for re-measurement contracts

———-(c) Lump sum contracts
———-(d) Cost reimbursement contracts
———-(e) Target contracts
———-(f) Payment under design, build and operate contracts
—–3.2 Other payment provisions
———-(a) Price variation provisions
———-(b) Payment terms
———-(c) Bonus payments
———-(d) ‘Ex-contractual’ payments
———-(e) Pre-payments
—–3.3 Contractual risks arising during construction
—–3.4 Producing an initial cost-estimate of a project
—–3.5 Estimating the cost of a project at design stage
—–3.6 Project cost control

4 Contract conditions used for civil engineering work

—–4.1 Standard conditions of contract
—–4.2 Contract conditions produced by the UK Institution of Civil Engineers
———-(a) ICE Conditions of Contract for Works of Civil Engineering Construction *
———-(b) ICE Conditions for Ground Investigations *
———-(c) ICE Minor Works Conditions *
———-(d) ICE Design and Construct Conditions *
———-(e) ICE Term Version *
———-(f) ICE Engineering and Construction Contract *
———-(g) Partnering Addendum *
—–4.3 Conditions published by the International Federation of Consulting Engineers FIDIC
———-‘Red Book’ Conditions, 4th Edition 1999 New forms *
—–4.4 Other conditions for civil engineering or building work
———-GC/Works/1 – General Conditions of Government Contracts for Building and Civil Engineering Works, Edition 3 (1991) *
———-Joint Contracts Tribunal Conditions *
—–4.5 Conditions mainly for plant and equipment suppl
———-I Mech E Model Form *
———-I Mech E/IEE; MF/ *
———-FIDIC 2nd and 3rd Editions: ‘Yellow Book’ *
———-I Chem E ‘Red Book’ Conditions *
———-I Chem E ‘Green Book’ Conditions *
—–4.6 Other associated conditions
———-ACE Forms of Agreement *
———-CECA Sub-contract forms *

5 Preparing contract documents

—–5.1 Initial decisions
—–5.2 Roles of the key participants in a construction contract
—–5.3 The contract documents
———-Instructions to tenderers *
———-General and particular conditions of contract *
———-The specification *
———-Bill of quantities or schedule of prices *
———-Tender and appendices *
———-The contract drawings *
—–5.4 Bond, insurance, etc.
—–5.5 Writing specifications
—–5.6 Co-ordinating contracts for construction
———-Plant supply contracts *
———-Site preparation contracts *
———-Co-ordination requirements *
—–5.7 The specification of general requirements
—–5.8 The specification for workmanship and materials

6 Tendering

—–6.1 Methods used for obtaining tenders
—–6.2 Tendering requirements and EC rules
—–6.3 Procedures under selective tendering
—–6.4 Requirements for fast completion

—–6.5 Issuing tender documents
—–6.6 Considering tenders
———-Opening tenders *
———-Qualification attached to tenders *
———-Checking tenders *
—–6.7 Checking prices and comparing tenders
—–6.8 Choosing a tender
—–6.9 Offer by a tenderer to complete early
—–6.10 Procedure for accepting a tender
———-Publications giving guidance on tendering *
———-Appendix: UK Regulations *

7 The contractor’s site organization

—–7.1 Contractor’s site personnel
—–7.2 The agent
—–7.3 Site field personnel
—–7.4 Site office personnel
—–7.5 Accounting methods
—–7.6 Providing constructional plant and equipment
—–7.7 The contractor’s use of sub-contractors
—–7.8 Recent measures to alleviate sub-contract disputes

8 The employer and his engineer

—–8.1 Introduction to employer and his engineer
—–8.2 The role of the employer’s engineer under ICE conditions
—–8.3 A note on alternative provisions of the ECC conditions
—–8.4 Limitations to the engineer’s powers under ICE conditions
—–8.5 The engineer’s duty to provide all necessary drawings to the contractor
—–8.6 Quality assurance considerations References

9 The resident engineer’s duties

—–9.1 The engineer’s representative on site – the resident engineer
—–9.2 Powers not delegated to the resident engineer
—–9.3 Usual powers delegated to the resident engineer
—–9.4 Some common problems
—–9.5 Some important points the resident engineer should watch
—–9.6 The resident engineer’s duties with regard to safety
—–9.7 Relationship between the resident engineer and the contractor’s agent
—–9.8 Handling troubles
—–9.9 More difficult cases of trouble
—–9.10 The resident engineer’s staff
—–9.11 Gifts and hospitality

10 Health and safety regulations

—–10.1 Legal framework
—–10.2 The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994
—–10.3 The Health and Safety Plan required under CDM Regulations
—–10.4 The Health and Safety File required under CDM Regulations
—–10.5 Training
—–10.6 Approved Code of Practice under CDM Regulations
—–10.7 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
—–10.8 Risk assessment
———-Reasonably practicable *
—–10.9 The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare)
———-Regulations *
—–10.10 Other major regulations Publications

11 Starting the construction work

—–11.1 Pre-commencement meeting and start-up arrangements
—–11.2 The contractor’s initial work
—–11.3 The resident engineer’s work
———-Work before going to site *
———-The site office *
—–11.4 Early matters to discuss with the agent
—–11.5 Some early tasks for the resident engineer
—–11.6 Meeting the employer
—–11.7 Setting up the clerical work

12 Site surveys, investigations and layout

—–12.1 Responsibility
—–12.2 Levelling
—–12.3 Plane surveying
—–12.4 Setting out verticality, tunnels and pipelines
—–12.5 Setting out floor levels
—–12.6 Site investigations
—–12.7 Trial pits
—–12.8 Exploratory holes
———-Rotary core drilling *
———-Light cable percussion drilling *
———-Percussion drilling *


—–12.9 Other means of ground investigation
—–12.10 Judging the safe bearing value of a foundation
—–12.11 Testing apparatus for a site soils laboratory
———-For moisture content determinations *
———-For grading analyses of soils *
———-For in situ density test (sand replacement method) *
———-For compaction tests *
—–12.12 Site layout considerations
———-Haulage roads *
———-Planning bulk excavation *
———-Power generators and compressors *
———-Extra land *
———-Main offices *
—–12.13 Temporary works
—–12.14 Work in public roads
—–12.15 Site drainage

13 The resident engineer’s office records

—–13.1 Records and their importance
—–13.2 The correspondence filing system
———-General files (Series 1–9) *
———-Head office (Series 10–19) *
———-Separate supply contracts and sub-contractors (Series 20–29) *
———-Main contractor (Series 30–39) *
—–13.3 CVIs from contractor and instructions to contractor
—–13.4 Register of drawings
—–13.5 Daily and other progress records
—–13.6 Quantity records
—–13.7 The contractor’s interim payment applications
—–13.8 Authorization of dayworks
—–13.9 Filing system for dayworks sheets
—–13.10 Check of materials on site
—–13.11 Price increase records
—–13.12Supply contract records
—–13.13 Registers of test results
—–13.14 Photographs
—–13.15 Record drawings
—–13.16 Other records

14 Programme and progress charts

—–14.1 Responsibilities for programming the construction
—–14.2 Difficulties with nominated sub-contractors or suppliers
—–14.3 The role of the resident engineer
—–14.4 Watching and recording progress
—–14.5 Network diagrams and critical path planning
—–14.6 The part played by the agent in achieving progress
—–14.7 Completion
—–14.8 Estimating extension of time
—–14.9 Estimating probable final cost of works

15 Measurement and bills of quantities

—–15.1 Principles of pricing and payment
—–15.2 Methods of measurement for bills of quantities
—–15.3 The ICE standard method of measurement
—–15.4 Problems with classes of work and number of item
—–15.5 Accuracy of quantities: provisional quantitie
—–15.6 Billing of quantities for building work
—–15.7 Some problems of billing
———-Excavation *
———-Working space *
———-Pipelines *
———-Earthwork construction *
———-Concrete *
———-Brickwork *
—–15.8 Use of nominated sub-contractors
—–15.9 Prime cost items
—–15.10 The preliminaries bill and method-related items
———-Temporary works *
———-Items added *
———-Method-related items *
———-Division of items in the preliminaries bill *
———-Problems with Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement *
—–15.11 Adjustment item to the total price
—–15.12 Preamble to bill of quantities
—–15.13 List of principal quantities

16 Interim monthly payments

—–16.1 Handling interim payments
—–16.2 Agreeing quantities for payment
—–16.3 Payment for extra work, dayworks and claims
—–16.4 Payment of lump sums, method related items and any adjustment item
—–16.5 Payment for materials on site
—–16.6 Payment for materials manufactured off site
—–16.7 Payment for manufactured items shipped overseas
—–16.8 Price adjustment
—–16.9 Cost reimbursement
—–16.10 Retention and other matters

17 Variations and claims

—–17.1 Who deals with variations and claims
—–17.2 Payment for increased quantities
—–17.3 Ordered variations
—–17.4 Rates for ordered variations
—–17.5 Variations proposed by the contractor
—–17.6 Claims from the contractor
—–17.7 Sheets submitted ‘for record purposes only’
—–17.8 Clause 12 claims for unforeseen conditions
—–17.9 Payment for unforeseen conditions
—–17.10 Delay claims
—–17.11 Estimating delay costs
—–17.12 Quotations from a contractor for undertaking variations
—–17.13 Time limits and interest payable on late payments
—–17.14 Adjudication
—–17.15 Alternative dispute resolution
—–17.16 Arbitration
—–17.17 Minimizing claims and disputes

18 Earthworks and pipelines

—–18.1 Excavating and earth-placing machinery
—–18.2 Controlling excavation
—–18.3 Haulage of excavated material
—–18.4 Placing and compacting fill
—–18.5 Watching fill quality
—–18.6 Site roads
—–18.7 Trenching for pipelines
—–18.8 Thrust blocks and testing pipelines
—–18.9 Handling and jointing large pipes and fittings

19 Site concreting and reinforcement

—–19.1 Development of concrete practice
—–19.2 Standards for concrete quality
—–19.3 Practical compliance with concrete standards
—–19.4 Grading of aggregates and their suitable mixing
—–19.5 Workability of concrete and admixtures
—–19.6 Practical points in producing good concrete
—–19.7 Some causes of unsatisfactory concrete test results
—–19.8 Site checks on concrete quality
—–19.9 Conveyance and placing of concrete
—–19.10 Construction and other joints
—–19.11 Concrete finish problems
—–19.12 Handling and fixing steel reinforcement

Civil Engineering Project Management Fourth Edition
Alan C. Twort BSC, FICE, FCIWEM and J. Gordon Rees BSC(Eng), FICE, FCIArb