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Civil Engineering

Distance measurement

5.1 General Distances may be measured by four methods: direct, optical, electromagnetic or GPS. The method used for any particular job depends upon the nature…

Angle measurement

A number of the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 require the measurement of angles, to a greater or lesser degree of accuracy. Horizontal and vertical…

General principles of surveying

Surveying has two notable characteristics: the work is done to a much higher level of accuracy than most other engineering work and it is easy…

Uses of Piles

The major uses of piles are: 1. To carry vertical compression load. 2. To resist uplift load. 3. To resist horizontal or inclined loads. Normally…

Classification of Piles

Piles may be classified as long or short in accordance with the L/d ratio of the pile (where L = length, d = diameter of…

Floating Foundation

General Consideration A floating foundation for a building is defined as a foundation in which the weight of the building is approximately equal to the…