All the distances required for making a plan are the horizontal distances. Hence in the field horizontal distances are measured or sufficient readings are taken to calculate horizontal distances. In this chapter the methods used for linear measurements are explained. Method of preparing a plan using only linear measurements is by conducting chain surveying. This method is also explained in this chapter and Indian Standard Conventions for showing objects on the map are presented at the end of the chapter.
—–12.1 Methods of Linear Measurements
—–12.2 Instruments used in Chaining
—–12.3 Chain Surveying
—–12.5 Obstacles in Chaining
—–12.6 Errors in Chaining
—–12.7 Tape Corrections
—–12.8 Conventional Symbols