Modern Tools of Surveying

Theodolite is an instrument which replaced compass and level. It can measure both horizontal and vertical angles. If telescope is kept at zero reading of vertical angle it serves as an ordinary level. In this modern era of electronics equipments have come up to measure the distances to relieve surveyor from chaining long lines. Total station is another modern survey equipment which combines the features of theodolite and electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments. Global positioning system is an instrument, which establishes global position of the station making use at least 4 satellite stations.
In this chapter all these modern tools of surveying are briefly explained.

—–16.1 Theodolite
—–16.2 Electromagnetic Distance Measuring Instruments
—–16.3 Total Station
—–16.4 Global Positioning System