Building Design and Construction

Corrosion of Steel

Ordinarily, steel corrodes in the presence of both oxygen and water, but corrosion rarely takes place in the absence of either. For instance, steel does not corrode in dry air, and corrosion is negligible when the relative humidity is below 70%, the critical humidity at normal temperature. Likewise, steel does not corrode in water that has been effectively deaerated. Therefore, the corrosion of structural steel is not a serious problem, except where water and oxygen are in abundance and where these primary prerequisites are supplemented with corrosive chemicals such as soluble salts, acids, cleaning compounds, and welding fluxes.
In ideal dry atmosphere, a thin transparent film of iron oxide forms. This layer of ferric oxide is actually beneficial, since it protects the steel from further oxidation.
When exposed to water and oxygen in generous amounts, steel corrodes at an average rate of roughly 5 mils loss of surface metal per year. If the surface is comparatively dry, the rate drops to about 1⁄2 mil per year after the first year, the usual case in typical industrial atmospheres. Excessively high corrosion rates occur only in the presence of electrolytes or corrosive chemicals. Usually, this condition is found in localized areas of a building.
Mill scale, the thick layer of iron oxides that forms on steel during the rolling operations, is beneficial as a protective coating, if it is intact and adheres firmly to the steel. In the mild environments generally encountered in most buildings, mill scale that adheres tightly after weathering and handling offers no difficulty. In buildings exposed to high humidity and corrosive gases, broken mill scale may be detrimental to both the steel and the paint. Through electrochemical action, corrosion sets in along the edges of the cracks in the mill scale and in time loosens the scale, carrying away the paint.

Galvanic corrosion takes place when dissimilar metals are connected together.
Noble metals such as copper and nickel should not be connected to structural steel with steel fasteners, since the galvanic action destroys the fasteners. On the other hand, these metals may be used for the fasteners, because the galvanic action is distributed over a large area and consequently little or no harm is done. When dissimilar metals are to be in contact, the contacting surfaces should be insulated;
paint is usually satisfactory.


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