When considering fabrication, as well as erection of the fabricated product, the designer must taken into account contractual matters, work by others on the construction team, schedule implications of the design, and quality assurance matters.
Fortunately, there are well established aids for these considerations. Contractual questions such as what constitutes structural steel, procedures for preparing and approving the shop detail drawings, and standard fabrication procedures and tolerances are all addressed in the AISC’s Code of Standard Practice (Table 7.1).
Insights on economical connection details and the impact of material selection on mill material deliveries are generally available from the fabricator’s engineering staff. These engineers are also able to comment on unique erection questions.
Quality assurance questions fall into two categories, fabrication operations and field operations. Today, sound quality control procedures are in place in most fabrication shops through an AISC program which prequalifies fabricators. There are three levels of qualification: I, II and III, with Level III being the most demanding.
Fabricators with either a Level I or Level II certification are suitable for almost all building work.
Most engineers incorporate the AISC’s Code of Standard Practice in their project specification.
Shop Detail Drawings
Detail drawings are prepared by the fabricator to delineate to his work force the fabrication requirements. Because each shop has certain differences in equipment and/or procedures, the fabricator develops details which, when matched with his processes, are the most economical. To accomplish this end, the design drawings need to be complete, showing all structural steel requirements, and should include design information on the forces acting at connections. Designers should avoid specifying deck openings and beam penetrations through notes on the drawings.
This is a frequent cause of extra costs on fabrication contracts.
Mill material is cut to length by sawing, shearing, or flame cutting. Columns may also be milled to their final length. Holes for fasteners are drilled or punched.
Punched and reamed holes are seldom used in building construction. Cuts for weld preparation, web openings, and dimensional clearances are flame cut. AISC guidelines for each of these processes are associated with the AISC’s fabricator prequalification program. Welding for building construction is performed in accordance with the provisions of the AWS Structural Welding Code, D1.1. Most requirements can be satisfied using pre-qualified welding procedures.