Building Design and Construction


A considerable range of brasses is obtainable for a large variety of end uses. The high ductility and malleability of the copper-zinc alloys, or brasses, make them suitable for operations like deep drawing, bending, and swaging. They have a wide range of colors. They are generally less expensive than the high-copper alloys.
Grain size of the metal has a marked effect upon its mechanical properties. For deep drawing and other heavy working operations, a large grain size is required, but for highly finished polished surfaces, the grain size must be small.
Like copper, brass is hardened by cold working. Hardnesses are sometimes expressed as quarter hard, half hard, hard, extra hard, spring, and extra spring, corresponding to reductions in cross section during cold working ranging from approximately 11 to 69%. Hardness is strongly influenced by alloy composition, original grain size, and form (strip, rod, tube, wire).

Plain Brass

Brass compositions range from higher copper content to zinc contents as high as 40% or more. Brasses with less than 36% zinc are plain alpha solid solutions; but Muntz metal, with 40% zinc, contains both alpha and beta phases.
The principal plain brasses of interest in building, and their properties are:
Commercial bronze, 90% (90.0% copper, 10.0% zinc). Typical uses are forgings, screws, weatherstripping, and stamped hardware. General properties include excellent cold working and high ductility.
Red brass, 85% (85.0% copper, 15.0% zinc). Typical uses are dials, hardware, etched parts, automobile radiators, and tube and pipe for plumbing. General properties are higher strength and ductility than copper, and excellent corrosion resistance.
Cartridge brass, 70% (70.0% copper, 30.0% zinc). Typical uses are deep drawing, stamping, spinning, etching, rolling—for practically all fabricating processes— cartridge cases, pins, rivets, eyelets, heating units, lamp bodies and reflectors, electrical sockets, drawn shapes, etc. General properties are best combination of ductility and strength of any brass, and excellent cold-working properties.

Muntz metal (60.0% copper, 40.0% zinc). Typical uses are sheet form, perforated metal, architectural work, condenser tubes, valve stems, and brazing rods.
General properties are high strength combined with low ductility.

Leaded Brass

Lead is added to brass to improve its machinability, particularly in such applications as automatic screw machines where a freely chipping metal is required. Leaded brasses cannot easily be cold-worked by such operations as flaring, upsetting, or cold heading. Several leaded brasses of importance in the building field are the following:

High-leaded brass (64.0% copper, 34.0% zinc, 2.0% lead). Typical uses are engraving plates, machined parts, instruments (professional and scientific), nameplates, keys, lock parts, and tumblers. General properties are free machining and good blanking.
Forging brass (60.0% copper, 38.0% zinc, 2.0% lead). Typical uses are hot forging, hardware, and plumbing goods. General properties are extreme plasticity when hot and a combination of good corrosion resistance with excellent mechanical properties.
Architectural bronze (56.5% copper, 41.25% zinc, 2.25% lead). Typical uses are handrails, decorative moldings, grilles, revolving door parts, miscellaneous architectural trim, industrial extruded shapes (hinges, lock bodies, automotive parts).
General properties are excellent forging and free-machining properties.

Tin Brass

Tin is added to a variety of basic brasses to obtain hardness, strength, and other properties that would otherwise not be available. Two important alloys are:
Admiralty (71.0% copper, 28.0% zinc, 1.0% tin, 0.05% arsenic). Typical uses are condenser and heat-exchanger plates and tubes, steam-power-plant equipment, chemical and process equipment, and marine uses. General properties are excellent corrosion resistance, combined with strength and ductility.
Manganese bronze (58.5% copper, 39.0% zinc, 1.4% iron, 1.0% tin, 0.1% manganese).
Typical uses are forgings, condenser plates, valve stems, and coal screens.
General properties are high strength combined with excellent wear resistance.


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