The purpose of consolidation is to eliminate voids of entrapped air and to ensure intimate complete contact of the concrete with the surfaces of the forms and the reinforcement. Intense vibration, however, may also reduce the volume of desirable entrained air; but this reduction can be compensated by adjustment of the mix proportions.
Powered internal vibrators are usually used to achieve consolidation. For thin slabs, however, high-quality, low-slump concrete can be effectively consolidated,  without excess water, by mechanical surface vibrators. For precast elements in rigid, watertight forms, external vibration (of the form itself) is highly effective. External vibration is also effective with in-place forms, but should not be used unless the formwork is specially designed for the temporary increase in internal pressures to full fluid head plus the impact of the vibrator (‘‘Guide to Formwork for Concrete,’’ ACI 347R).
Except in certain paving operations, vibration of the reinforcement should be avoided. Although it is effective, the necessary control to prevent overvibration is difficult. Also, when concrete is placed in several lifts of layers, vibration of vertical rebars passing into partly set concrete below may be harmful. Note, however, that revibration of concrete before the final set, under controlled conditions, can improve concrete strength markedly and reduce surface voids (bugholes). This technique is too difficult to control for general use on field-cast vertical elements, but it is very effective in finishing slabs with powered vibrating equipment.
Manual spading is most efficient for removal of entrapped air at form surfaces.
This method is particularly effective where smooth impermeable form material is used and the surface is upward sloping.
On the usual building project, different conditions of placement are usually encountered that make it desirable to provide for various combinations of the techniques described. One precaution generally applicable is that the vibrators not be used to move the concrete laterally.
(‘‘Guide for Consolidation of Concrete,’’ ACI 309R.)