Building Design and Construction

Heating and Air Conditioning

Most manufacturers of air-conditioning equipment allow space in the air-handling compartment for the installation of a humidification unit and a heating coil for hot water or steam. These make it possible to humidify and heat the air in cold weather.
Before a decision is reached to heat through the air-conditioning duct system, it is important to consider the many pitfalls present:
When a unit provides air conditioning in a single room, a heating coil may do the job readily, provided the Btu-per-hour rating of the coil is equal to or greater than the heating load. The fact that the supply grilles are high is usually no disadvantage;
since winter heating is designed for the same amount of air as summer cooling, a small temperature rise results, and the large air-change capacity of the air-handling unit creates enough mixing to prevent serious stratification. Difficulties usually are encountered, however, in a structure with both exposed and interior zones. In the winter, the exposed zones need heating, while the interior zones are warm. If the heating thermostat is located in the exposed zone, the interior zones will become overheated. If the thermostat is located in the interior zone, the exposed zones will be too cold. Where some heat is generated in the interior zones, the system may require cooling of the interior and heating of the exterior zones at the same time. Thus, it is impossible to do a heating and cooling job with a single system in such structures.

Where heating and cooling are to be done with the same duct system, the airhandling equipment should be arranged to service individual zones—one or more units for the exposed zones, and one or more units for the interior zones.
When a heating system is already present and an air-conditioning system is added, a heating coil may be used to temper the outside air to room temperature.
A duct-type thermostat may be placed in the discharge of the unit to control the steam or hot-water valve. When a room thermostat is used, the spare coil capacity may be used for quick morning pickup. Later in the day, the system may be used for cooling the premises with outside air if the building-heating system or other internal heat sources overheat the premises. In buildings with large window areas, it is advisable to place under the windows for use in cold weather some radiation to supply heat in addition to that from the heating coil, to counteract the down draft from the cold glass surfaces.
The heating-coil size should be such that its face area is about equal to the cooling-coil face area. The number of rows deep should be checked with manufacturers’ ratings. When the unit is to be used for tempering only, the coil need be sized for the fresh-air load only [Eq. (13.30)].
When large quantities of outside air are used, it is usual practice to install a preheat coil in the fresh-air duct and a reheat coil in the air-conditioning unit. Install the necessary filters before the preheat coil to prevent clogging.

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