Building Design and Construction

Special Forms

Special formwork may be required for uncommon structures, such as folded plates, shells, arches, and posttensioned-in-place designs, or for special methods of construction, such as slip forming with the form rising on the finished concrete or with the finished concrete descending as excavation progresses, permanent forms of any type, preplaced-grouted-aggregate concreting, underwater concreting, and combinations of precast and cast-in-place concreting.

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