Building Materials

This section describes the basic materials used in building construction and discusses their common applications. As the world’s population increases and consumes more of the natural resources, it is incumbent upon the civil engineer to use building materials that contribute to sustaining development instead of satisfying only the short-term need. Material selection should incorporate an evaluation of the amount of energy required to produce and deliver the material to the building site.
This concept of ‘‘embodied energy’’ is evolving and variable. As an example, in the Pacific Northwest lumber would have an ‘‘embodied energy’’ of 1, but in the arid Southwest transportation raises the value several points. Examples of other materials are concrete (2–3), steel (4–6), and aluminum (80). For discussion purposes, materials used in similar applications are grouped and discussed in sequence, for example, masonry materials, wood, metals, plastics, etc.

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS
—–4.1 Types of Cementitious Materials
—–4.2 Portland Cements
—–4.3 Aluminous Cements
—–4.4 Natural Cements
—–4.5 Limes
—–4.6 Low-Temperature Gypsum Derivatives
—–4.7 Oxychloride Cements
—–4.8 Masonry Cements
—–4.9 Fly Ashes
—–4.10 Silica Fume (Microsilica)
—–4.11 Normal-Weight Aggregates
—–4.12 Heavyweight and Lightweight Aggregates
—–4.13 Chemical and Mineral Admixtures
—–4.14 Fibers for Concrete Mixes
—–4.15 Miscellaneous Admixtures
—–4.16 Mortars
—–4.17 Portland-Cement Concrete
—–4.18 Polymer Concretes
—–4.19 Concrete Masonry Units
—–4.20 Brick-Clay or Shale
—–4.21 Structural Clay Tile
—–4.22 Ceramic Tiles
—–4.23 Architectural Terra Cotta
—–4.24 Properties of Building Stones
—–4.25 Freezing and Thawing of Stone
—–4.26 Gypsumboard
—–4.27 Gypsum Lath
—–4.28 Gypsum Sheathing Board
—–4.29 Gypsum Partition Tile or Block
—–4.30 Gypsum Plank
—–4.31 Window Glass
—–4.32 Glass Block
—–4.33 Mechanical Properties of Wood
—–4.34 Effects of Hygroscopic Properties of Wood
—–4.35 Commercial Grades of Wood
—–4.36 Destroyers and Preservatives
—–4.37 Glues and Adhesives for Wood
—–4.38 Plywood and Other Fabricated Wood Boards
—–4.39 Wood Bibliography
—–4.40 Types of Irons and Steels
—–4.41 Properties of Structural Steels
—–4.42 Heat Treatment and Hardening of Steels
—–4.43 Effects of Grain Size
—–4.44 Steel Alloys
—–4.45 Welding Ferrous Materials
—–4.46 Effects of Steel Production Methods
—–4.47 Effects of Hot Rolling
—–4.48 Effects of Punching and Shearing
—–4.49 Corrosion of Iron and Steel
—–4.50 Steel and Steel Alloy Bibliography
—–4.50.1 Aluminum and aluminum based alloys
—–4.51 Aluminum-Alloy Designations
—–4.52 Finishes for Aluminum
—–4.53 Structural Aluminum
—–4.54 Welding and Brazing of Aluminum
—–4.55 Bolted and Riveted Aluminum Connections
—–4.56 Prevention of Corrosion of Aluminum
—–4.57 Aluminum Bibliography
—–4.58 Copper
—–4.59 Brass
—–4.60 Nickel Silvers
—–4.61 Cupronickel
—–4.62 Bronze
—–4.63 Copper Bibliography
—–4.64 Applications of Lead
—–4.65 Lead Bibliography
—–4.66 Properties of Nickel and Its Alloys
—–4.67 Nickel Bibliography
—–4.68 General Properties of Plastics
—–4.69 Fillers and Plasticizers
—–4.70 Molding and Fabricating Methods for Plastics
—–4.71 Thermosetting Plastics
—–4.72 Thermoplastic Resins
—–4.73 Elastomers, or Synthetic Rubbers
—–4.74 High-Pressure Laminates
—–4.75 Reinforced Plastics
—–4.76 Laminated Rubber
—–4.77 Plastics Bibliography
—–4.78 Porcelain Enamel on Metal
—–4.79 Porcelain Bibliography
—–4.80 Asphalts for Dampproofing and Waterproofing
—–4.81 Bituminous Roofing
—–4.82 Asphalt Shingles
—–4.83 Asphalt Mastics and Grouts
—–4.84 Bituminous Pavements
—–4.85 Asphalt Bibliography
—–4.86 Calking Compounds
—–4.87 Sealants
—–4.88 Gaskets
—–4.89 Joint Seals Bibliography
—–4.90 Vehicles or Binders
—–4.91 Pigments for Paints
—–4.92 Resins for Paints
—–4.93 Coatings Bibliography