Concrete Construction

Economical, durable construction with concrete requires a thorough knowledge of its properties and behavior in service, of approved design procedures, and of recommended field practices. Not only is such knowledge necessary to avoid disappointing results, especially when concrete is manufactured and formed on the building site, but also to obtain maximum benefits from its unique properties.
To provide the needed information, several organizations promulgate standards, specifications, recommended practices, guides, and reports. Reference is made to these where appropriate throughout this section. Information provided herein is based on the latest available editions of the documents. Inasmuch as they are revised frequently, the latest editions should be used for current design and construction.

CONCRETE AND ITS INGREDIENTS

The American Concrete Institute ‘‘Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,’’
ACI 318, contains the following basic definitions:
Concrete is a mixture of portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures.
Admixture is a material other than hydraulic cement, aggregate, or water, used as an ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties.
In this section, unless indicated otherwise, these definitions apply to the terms concrete and admixture.

—–9.1 Cementitious Materials
—–9.2 Cements
—–9.3 Aggregates
—–9.4 Proportioning Concrete Mixes
—–9.5 Yield Calculation
—–9.6 Properties and Tests of Fresh (Plastic) Concrete
—–9.7 Properties and Tests of Hardened Concrete
—–9.8 Measuring and Mixing Concrete Ingredients
—–9.9 Admixtures
—–9.10 Mix Design
—–9.11 Check Tests of Materials
—–9.12 At the Mixing Plant-Yield Adjustments
—–9.13 At the Placing Point-Slump Adjustments
—–9.14 Strength Tests
—–9.15 Test Evaluation
—–9.16 Responsibility for Formwork
—–9.17 Materials and Accessories for Forms
—–9.18 Loads on Formwork
—–9.19 Form Removal and Reshoring
—–9.20 Special Forms
—–9.21 Inspection of Formwork
—–9.22 Reinforcing Bars
—–9.23 Welded-Wire Fabric (WWF)
—–9.24 Prestressing Steel
—–9.25 Fabrication and Placing of Rebars
—–9.26 Bar Supports
—–9.27 Inspection of Reinforcement
—–9.28 Good Practice
—–9.29 Methods of Placing
—–9.30 Excess Water
—–9.31 Consolidation
—–9.32 Concreting Vertical Elements
—–9.33 Concreting Horizontal Elements
—–9.34 Bonding to Hardened Concrete
—–9.35 Heavy-Duty Floor Finishes
—–9.36 Concreting in Cold Weather
—–9.37 Concreting in Hot Weather
—–9.38 Curing Concrete
—–9.39 Joints in Concrete
—–9.40 Inspection of Concrete Placement
—–9.41 Analyses of One-Way Floor and Roof Systems
—–9.42 Two-Way Slab Frames
—–9.43 Special Analyses
—–9.44 Strength Design with Factored Loads
—–9.45 Allowable-Stress Design at Service Loads (Alternative Design Method)
—–9.46 Strength Design for Flexure
—–9.47 Shear in Flexural Members
—–9.48 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members
—–9.49 Development, Anchorage, and Splices of Reinforcement
—–9.50 Crack Control
—–9.51 Deflection of Reinforced-Concrete Beams and Slabs
—–9.52 Analysis and Design of One-Way Slabs
—–9.53 Embedded Pipes in One-Way Slabs
—–9.54 Standard Sizes of Joists
—–9.55 Design of One-Way Concrete-Joist Construction
—–9.56 Reinforcement of Joists for Flexure
—–9.57 Shear in Joists
—–9.58 Wide-Module Joist Construction
—–9.59 Analysis and Design of Flat Plates
—–9.60 Flat Slabs
—–9.61 Two-Way Slabs on Beams
—–9.62 Estimating Guide for Two-Way Construction
—–9.63 Definitions of Flexural Members
—–9.64 Flexural Reinforcement
—–9.65 Reinforcement for Shear and Flexure
—–9.66 Reinforcement for Torsion and Shear
—–9.67 Crack Control in Beams
—–9.68 Bearing Walls
—–9.69 Nonbearing Walls
—–9.70 Cantilever Retaining Walls
—–9.71 Counterfort Retaining Walls
—–9.72 Retaining Walls Supported on Four Sides
—–9.73 Types of Foundations
—–9.74 General Design Principles for Foundations
—–9.75 Spread Footings for Walls
—–9.76 Spread Footings for Individual Columns
—–9.77 Combined Spread Footings
—–9.78 Strap Footings
—–9.79 Mat Foundations
—–9.80 Pile Foundations
—–9.81 Drilled-Pier Foundations
—–9.82 Basic Assumptions for Strength Design of Columns
—–9.83 Design Requirements for Columns
—–9.84 Column Ties and Tie Patterns
—–9.85 Biaxial Bending of Columns
—–9.86 Slenderness Effects on Concrete Columns
—–9.87Economy in Column Design
—–9.88 Deep Beams
—–9.89 Shear Walls
—–9.90Reinforced-Concrete Arches
—–9.91 Reinforced-Concete Thin Shells
—–9.92 Concrete Folded Plates
—–9.93 Slabs on Grade
—–9.94 Seismic-Resistant Concrete Construction
—–9.95 Composite Flexural Members
—–9.96 Design Methods for Precast Members
—–9.97 Reinforcement Cover in Precast Members
—–9.98 Tolerances for Precast Construction
—–9.99 Accelerated Curing
—–9.100Precast Floor and Roof Systems
—–9.101 Precast Ribbed Slabs, Folded Plates, and Shells
—–9.102 Wall Panels
—–9.103 Lift Slabs
—–9.104 Basic Principles of Prestressed Concrete
—–9.105 Losses in Prestress
—–9.106 Allowable Stresses at Service Loads
—–9.107Design Procedure for Prestressed-Concrete Beams
—–9.108 Flexural-Strength Design of Prestressed Concrete
—–9.109 Shear-Strength Design of Prestressed Concrete
—–9.110 Bond, Development, and Grouting of Tendons
—–9.111 Application and Measurement of Prestress
—–9.112 Concrete Cover in Prestressed Members