Vertical Circulation

Circulation, as usually applied in architecture, is the movement of people and goods between interior spaces in buildings and to entrances and exits. Safe, convenient, rapid circulation is essential for all buildings under both normal and emergency conditions. Such circulation may be channeled through any of several different types of passageways, such as lobbies, corridors, ramps, stairways, and elevator hoistways. General requirements for these have been discussed in previous sections.
This section presents in more detail design and construction considerations in provision of means of vertical circulation, the movement of people and goods between floors of multistory buildings.
Vertical circulation of traffic in a multistory building is the key to successful functioning of the design, both in normal use and in emergencies. In fact, location of elevators or stairs strongly influences the floor plan. So in the design of a building, much thought should be given to the type of vertical circulation to be provided, number of units needed, and their location, arrangement, and design.
Traffic may pass from level to level in a multistory building by ramps, stairs, elevators, or escalators. The powered equipment is always supplemented by stairs for use when power is shut off, or there is a mechanical failure, or maintenance work is in progress, or in emergencies. In addition to conventional elevators, other types of human lifts are occasionally installed in residences, factories, and garages.
For moving small packages or correspondence between floors, dumbwaiters, chutes,  pneumatic tube systems, powered track conveyors, or vertical conveyors also may be installed. Ladders may be used for occasional access to attics or roofs.

—–16.1 Classification of Vertical Circulation Systems
—–16.2 Ramps
—–16.3 Stairs
—–16.4 Escalators
—–16.5 Elevator Installations
—–16.6 Definitions of Elevator Terms
—–16.7 Elevator Hoistways
—–16.8 Elevator Cars
—–16.9 Electric Elevators
—–16.10 Hydraulic Elevators
—–16.11 Planning for Passenger Elevators
—–16.12 Dumbwaiters
—–16.13 Conveyers and Pneumatic Tubes
—–16.14 Mail Chutes