Wall, Floor and Ceiling Systems

This section discusses design and construction of systems generally used for enclosing buildings and the spaces within them. (Some such systems, such as roofs and foundations, however, are treated in other sections, because of their special functions in addition to enclosure of spaces.) The systems covered in this section, as described in Art. 1.7, include exterior walls; interior walls, or partitions; floors; and ceilings.
Each of these systems usually consists of one or more facing subsystems and a structural subsystem that supports them. The facing subsystems may be the surfaces of the structural subsystem or separate entities that enclose that subsystem. They serve esthetic purposes, provide privacy, and bar, or at least restrict, passage of people or other moving objects, water, air, sound, heat and also often light.
Wood structural subsystems are discussed in Sec. 10, and concrete is discussed in Sec. 9. Basic principles of waterproofing building exteriors are presented in Art. 3.4.2. This section describes techniques applicable to unit masonry and curtain walls.
Floors provide not only a horizontal separation of interior building spaces but also a surface on which human activities can take place and on which materials and equipment can be stored. The structural subsystem usually consists of a slab  or deck and also often of beams that support it. These are described in Secs. 7 through 10. This section discusses constructions used for the upper facing, or floor coverings, which serve esthetic purposes and act as a wearing surface. The bottom facing, or ceiling, may be the bottom surface of the slab or deck or a separate entity, such as a gypsum-plaster membrane, which is also discussed in this section, or acoustical tile.

Masonry comprises assemblages of nonmetallic, incombustible materials, such as stone, brick, structural clay tile, concrete block, glass block, gypsum block, or adobe brick. Unit masonry consists of pieces of such materials, usually between 4 and 24 in in length and height and between 4 and 12 in in thickness. The units are bonded together with mortar or other cementitious materials.
Walls and partitions are classified as load-bearing and non-load-bearing. Different design criteria are applied to the two types.
Minimum requirements for both types of masonry walls are given in ANSI Standard Building Code Requirements for Masonry, A41.1 and ANSI Standard Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Masonry, A41.2, American National Standards Institute; Building Code Requirements for Engineered Brick Masonry, Brick Institute of America, and ACI Standard Building Code Requirements for Concrete Masonry Structures, ACI 531, American Concrete Institute.
Like other structural materials, masonry may be designed by application of engineering principles. In the absence of such design, the empirical rules given in this section and adopted by building codes may be used.

—–11.1 Masonry Definitions
—–11.2 Quality of Materials for Masonry
—–11.3 Construction of Masonry
—–11.4 Lateral Support for Masonry Walls
—–11.5 Chimneys and Fireplaces
—–11.6 Provisions for Dimensional Changes
—–11.7 Repair of Leaky Joints
—–11.8 Masonry-Thickness Requirements
—–11.9 Determination of Masonry Compressive Strength
—–11.10 Allowable Stresses in Masonry
—–11.11 Floor-Wall Connections
—–11.12 Glass Block
—–11.13 Masonry Bibliography
—–11.14 Stud-Wall Construction
—–11.15 Sheathing
—–11.16 Functional Requirements of Curtain Walls
—–11.17 Wood Facades
—–11.18 Wall Shingles and Siding
—–11.19 Stucco
—–11.20 Precast-Concrete or Metal and Glass Facings
—–11.21 Sandwich Panels
—–11.22 Types of Partitions
—–11.23 Structural Requirements of Partitions
—–11.24 Plaster and Gypsumboard Construction Terms
—–11.25 Plaster Finishes
—–11.26 Gypsumboard Finishes
—–11.27 Isolation and Control Joints in Gypsumboard Construction
—–11.28 Types of Ceramic Tile
—–11.29 Tile Installation Methods
—–11.30 Plywood Finishes
—–11.31 Other Types of Panel Finishes
—–11.32 Asphalt Tiles
—–11.33 Cork Tiles
—–11.34 Vinyl Flooring
—–11.35 Rubber Flooring
—–11.36 Installation of Thin Coverings
—–11.37 Carpets
—–11.38 Terrazzo
—–11.39 Concrete Floors
—–11.40 Wood Floors
—–11.41 Industrial Floors
—–11.42 Conductive Flooring
—–11.43 Specifications and Standards for Flooring
—–11.44 Window Selection
—–11.45 Window Definitions
—–11.46 Modular Coordination of Windows
—–11.47 Window Sash Materials
—–11.48 Glazing
—–11.49 Window Types
—–11.50 Windows in Wall-Panel Construction
—–11.51 Mechanical Operators for Windows
—–11.52 Traffic Flow and Safety
—–11.53 Structural Requirements for Openings and Doors
—–11.54 Ordinary Doors
—–11.55 Fire and Smokestop Doors
—–11.56 Revolving Doors
—–11.57 Large Horizontally Sliding Doors
—–11.58 Large Vertically Sliding Doors
—–11.59 Large Swinging Doors
—–11.60 Horizontally Hinged Doors
—–11.61 Radiation-Shielding Doors
—–11.62 Selection of Hardware
—–11.63 Effects of Codes and Regulations on Hardware
—–11.64 Standards for Finishing Hardware
—–11.65 Hinges and Butts
—–11.66 Door-Closing Devices
—–11.67 Locks, Latches and Keys
—–11.68 Window Hardware
—–11.69 Inserts, Anchors and Hangers
—–11.70 Nails
—–11.71 Screws
—–11.72 Welded Studs
—–11.73 Powder-Driven Studs
—–11.74 Bolts
—–11.75 Sound Production and Transmission
—–11.76 Nomenclature for Analysis of Sound
—–11.77 Sound Characteristics and Effects on Hearing
—–11.78 Measurement of Sound
—–11.79 Sound and Vibration Control
—–11.80 Acoustical Performance Data
—–11.81 Acoustical Criteria
—–11.82 Helpful Hints for Noise Control

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