Building Design and Construction

Sociological changes, new technology in industry and commerce, new building codes, other new laws and regulations, inflationary economies of nations, and advances in building technology place an ever-increasing burden on building designers
and constructors. They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope with the demands placed on them.
The public continually demands more complex buildings than in the past. They must serve more purposes, last longer, and require less maintenance and repair. As in the past, they must look attractive. Yet, both building construction and operating
costs must be kept within acceptable limits or new construction will cease.
To meet this challenge successfully, continual improvements in building design and construction must be made. Building designers and constructors should be alert to these advances and learn how to apply them skillfully.
One advance of note to building design is the adaptation of operations research, or systems design, developed around the middle of the twentieth century and originally
applied with noteworthy results to design of machines and electronic equipment.
In the past, design of a new building was mainly an imitation of the design of an existing building. Innovations were often developed fortuitously and by intuition and were rare occurrences. In contrast, systems design encourages innovation.
It is a precise procedure that guides creativity toward the best decisions. As a result, it can play a significant role in meeting the challenges posed by increasing building complexity and costs. The basic principles of systems design are presented
in this section.

  • Major Concerns with Building Codes

    Contractors should have a working knowledge of a variety of building codes. In most cities and municipalities, there is a local…

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  • Computer Estimating

    There are essentially three types of commercial computer products useful in preparation of cost estimates: Utilities. These are programs that arrange…

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  • Reviewing Estimates

    All estimates should be reviewed by all responsible parties at every stage. An estimate review should begin with a survey of…

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  • Sample Estimate

    As an example, the following illustrates preparation of an estimate for a trench excavation. The estimate can be regarded as a…

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  • Estimating Margin (Markup)

    Margin comprises three components: indirect costs, company-wide costs, and profit. These are defined in Art. 19.1. Determining Indirect, or Distributable, Costs…

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  • Estimating Contingency Costs

    These are the costs that must be added to the initially calculated costs to take into account events that are highly…

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  • Estimating Direct Costs

    Methods for preparing an estimate of direct costs may be based on either or both of two approaches: industry, or facility,…

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  • Composition of Project Price

    The total price of a construction project is the sum of direct costs, contingency costs, and margin. Direct costs are the…

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