Category: Concrete

Plain concrete, commonly known as concrete, is an intimate mixture of binding material, fine aggregate,
coarse aggregate and water. This can be easily moulded to desired shape and size before it looses
plasticity and hardens. Plain concrete is strong in compression but very weak in tension. The tensile
property is introduced in concrete by inducting different materials and this attempt has given rise to
RCC, RBC, PSC, FRC, cellular concrete and Ferro cement. In this chapter proportioning, mixing,
curing, properties, tests and uses of plain concrete is dealt in detail. The other improved versions of
concrete are explained and their special properties and uses are pointed out.

Category: Concrete Copper

It is a naturally available metal in the form of ores which contain small amount of iron and sulphur. After removing impurities, it is processed electrolytically to get purest metal. This metal is almost indestructible. Copper scrap can be processed to get original copper. Properties of Copper 1. It is having reddish brown colour. 2. Its structure is crystalline. 3. It

View Article...

Category: Concrete Ferro-Cement

The term ferro-cement implies the combination of ferrous product with cement. Generally this combination is in the form of steel wires meshes embedded in a portland cement mortar. Wire mesh is usually of 0.8 to 1.00 m diameter steel wires at 5 mm to 50 mm spacing and the cement mortar is of cement sand ratio of 1:2 or 1:3. 6 mm diameter

View Article...

Category: Concrete Cellular Concrete

It is a light weight concrete produced by introducing large voids in the concrete or mortar. Its density varies from 3 kN/m3 to 8 kN/m3 whereas plain concrete density is 24 kN/m3. It is also known as aerated, foamed or gas concrete. Properties of cellular concrete It has the following properties: 1. It has low weight. 2. It has good fire resistance.

View Article...

Category: Concrete Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (FRC)

Plain concrete possesses deficiencies like low tensile strength, limited ductility and low resistance to cracking. The cracks develop even before loading. After loading micro cracks widen and propagate, exposing concrete to atmospheric actions. If closely spaced and uniformly dispered fibres are provided while mixing concrete, cracks are arrested and static and dynamic properties are improved. Fibre reinforced concrete can be defined as a composite

View Article...

Category: Concrete Prestressed Concrete (PSC)

Strength of concrete in tension is very low and hence it is ignored in R.C.C. design. Concrete in tension is acting as a cover to steel and helping to keep steel at desired distance. Thus in R.C.C. lot of concrete  is not properly utilized. Prestressing the concrete is one of the method of utilizing entire concrete. The principle of prestressed concrete is

View Article...

Category: Concrete Reinforced Brick Concrete (RBC)

It is the combination of reinforcement, brick and concrete. It is well known fact that concrete is very weak in tension. Hence in the slabs, lintels and beams the concrete in the portion below the neutral axis do not participate in resisting the load. It acts as a filler material only. Hence to achieve economy the concrete in tensile zone may be replaced

View Article...

Category: Concrete Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.)

Concrete is good in resisting compression but is very weak in resisting tension. Hence reinforcement is provided in the concrete wherever tensile stress is expected. The best reinforcement is steel, since tensile strength of steel is quite high and the bond between steel and concrete is good. As the elastic modulus of steel is high, for the same extension the force resisted by

View Article...

Category: Concrete Uses of Concrete

1. As bed concrete below column footings, wall footings, on wall at supports to beams 2. As sill concrete 3. Over the parapet walls as coping concrete 4. For flagging the area around buildings 5. For pavements 6. For making building blocks. However major use of concrete is as a major ingradient of reinforced and prestressed concrete. Many structural elements

View Article...