Category: Super Structures

The portion above the ground level and below the ground floor level is known as plinth. The portion above the ground floor level is known as super structure. It includes walls, columns, beams, floors,
roofs, doors, windows, lintels, staircases etc. In this chapter types of super structures based on the method of load transfer is first presented and then the various components are discussed giving their functions and types.

Category: Super Structures Stairs

Stairs give access from floor to floor. The space/room housing stairs is called staircase. Stairs consists of a number of steps arranged in a single flight or more number of flights. The requirement of good stairs are a) Width: 0.9 m in residential buildings and 1.5 m to 2.5 m in public buildings. (b) Number of Steps in a Flight:

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Category: Super Structures Lintels

Lintel is a horizontal flexural member which spans over the openings in the walls for doors, windows, ventilators, cupboards etc. The load of masonry above the opening is transferred to the wall by flexural action of the lintel so that frames of doors, windows etc are not unduly loaded. The end bearings for the lintel should be at least 200 mm. The width

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Category: Super Structures Doors and Windows

The function of a door is to give access to building and to different parts of the building and to deny the access whenever necessary. Number of doors should be minimum possible. The size of the door should be of such dimension as will facilitate the movement of the largest object likely to use the doors. In case of the

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Category: Super Structures Roof

Roof is the upper most portion of the building which protects the building from rain, wind and sun. Various types of roofs used may be divided broadly into three types: 1. Flat roofs 2. Pitched roofs 3. Shells and folded plates. Flat roofs are used in plains where rainfall is less and climate is moderate. Pitched roofs are preferred wherever

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Category: Super Structures Flooring

Purpose of flooring is to get a good hard, level and beautiful surface for living. The floors directly resting on the ground are known as ground floors while the floors of each storey are known as upper floors. Ground Floor Apart from giving good finished surface, these floors should have good damp resistance. The ground surface is rammed well and a layer of

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Category: Super Structures Pointing

Instead of plastering entire surface of the masonry, special mortar finishing work is done to the exposed joints. This is called pointing. It consists of raking the joints to a depth of 10 mm to 20 mm and filling it with richer mortar mixes. In case of lime mortar pointing mix used is 1 : 2 and in case of

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Category: Super Structures Plastering

Applying mortar coats on the surfaces of walls, columns, ceiling etc. to get smooth finish is termed as plastering. Mortar used for plastering may be lime mortar, cement mortar or lime-cement mortar. Lime mortar used shall have fat lime to sand ratio of 1 : 3 or 1 : 4. If hydraulic lime is used mix proportion (lime: sand) is 1 : 2.

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Category: Super Structures Brick Masonry

Brick masonry is built with bricks bonded together with mortar. For temporary sheds mud mortar may be used but for all permanent buildings lime or cement mortars are used. The various types of bonds generally used in brick masonry are 1. Stretcher bond 2. Header bond 3. English bond and 4. Flemish bond. 1. Stretcher Bond: A stretcher is the longer

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Category: Super Structures Stone Masonry

Masonry means construction of buildings using building blocks like stone, bricks, concrete blocks etc. Masonry is used for the construction of foundation, plinth, walls and columns. Mortar is the binding material for the building blocks. In this article different types of stone masonry used are explained and points to be observed while supervising stone masonry works are listed. Types of Stone Masonry

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Category: Super Structures Walls

Walls are built to partition living area into different parts. They impart privacy and protection against temperature, rain and theft. Walls may be classified as 1. Load bearing walls 2. Partition walls 1. Load Bearing Walls: If beams and columns are not used, load from roof and floors are transferred to foundation by walls. Such walls are called load bearing walls.

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