Super Structures

The portion above the ground level and below the ground floor level is known as plinth. The portion above the ground floor level is known as super structure. It includes walls, columns, beams, floors,
roofs, doors, windows, lintels, staircases etc. In this chapter types of super structures based on the method of load transfer is first presented and then the various components are discussed giving their functions and types.

  • Photo of Stairs


    Stairs give access from floor to floor. The space/room housing stairs is called staircase. Stairs consists of a number of…

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  • Photo of Lintels


    Lintel is a horizontal flexural member which spans over the openings in the walls for doors, windows, ventilators, cupboards etc. The…

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  • Photo of Doors and Windows

    Doors and Windows

    The function of a door is to give access to building and to different parts of the building and to…

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  • Photo of Roof


    Roof is the upper most portion of the building which protects the building from rain, wind and sun. Various types…

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  • Photo of Flooring


    Purpose of flooring is to get a good hard, level and beautiful surface for living. The floors directly resting on the…

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  • Photo of Pointing


    Instead of plastering entire surface of the masonry, special mortar finishing work is done to the exposed joints. This is…

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  • Plastering

    Applying mortar coats on the surfaces of walls, columns, ceiling etc. to get smooth finish is termed as plastering. Mortar used…

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  • Photo of Brick Masonry

    Brick Masonry

    Brick masonry is built with bricks bonded together with mortar. For temporary sheds mud mortar may be used but for all…

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