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Posts published in “Surveying”

Surveying is the art of making measurements of objects on, above or beneath the ground to show their relative positions on paper. The relative position required is either horizontal, or vertical, or both. Less precisely the term Surveying is used to the measurement of objects in their horizontal positions. Measurements to deteremine their relative vertical positions is known as levelling.

Distance measurement

5.1 General Distances may be measured by four methods: direct, optical, electromagnetic or GPS. The method used for any particular job depends upon the nature…

Angle measurement

A number of the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 require the measurement of angles, to a greater or lesser degree of accuracy. Horizontal and vertical…

General principles of surveying

Surveying has two notable characteristics: the work is done to a much higher level of accuracy than most other engineering work and it is easy…

Geographical Information System (GIS)

Maps are used as the languages of simple geography. Importance of map making is recognised long ago. Surveyors went round the land and prepared maps. Data…

Remote sensing

Remote sensing may be defined as art and science of collecting informations about objects, area or phenomenon without having physical contact with it. Eye sight…

Computation of Volumes

The following three methods are available for computation of volumes: (i) From cross-sections (ii) From spot levels and (iii) From contours. First method is useful…

Methods of Contouring

Contouring needs the determination of elevation of various points on the ground and at the same the horizontal positions of those points should be fixed.…