Surveying is the art of making measurements of objects on, above or beneath the ground to show their relative positions on paper. The relative position required is either horizontal, or vertical, or both. Less precisely the term Surveying is used to the measurement of objects in their horizontal positions. Measurements to deteremine their relative vertical positions is known as levelling.

  • Photo of Reduction of distance measurements

    Reduction of distance measurements

    The reduction of distance measurements means the process of converting a measured slope distance between two points to the ‘reduced’…

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  • Photo of Adjustment of observations

    Adjustment of observations

    10.1 Introduction The term ‘adjustment’ suggests that some form of cheating might take place during the process of converting surveying…

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    Map projections

    9.1 Categories and properties of projections Chapter 8 has shown that it is useful to express the 3D positions of…

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    Geoids and ellipsoids

    8.1 Definition of the geoid The purpose of engineering surveying is to find the relative positions of points in three…

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    Satellite surveying

    7.1 Introduction At the time of going to press, satellite surveying relies mainly on a system called global positioning system…

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    Levelling is the process of finding the height of a new point or points by comparison with that of an…

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  • Photo of Distance measurement

    Distance measurement

    5.1 General Distances may be measured by four methods: direct, optical, electromagnetic or GPS. The method used for any particular…

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    Angle measurement

    A number of the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 require the measurement of angles, to a greater or lesser degree…

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