Tag Archive for Tag: Design

Tag: Design Design for Fire Safety

For buildings with structural lumber or timber framing, fire protection of the occupants and of the property itself can be enhanced by taking advantage of the fireendurance properties of wood in large cross sections and selecting details that make buildings fire-safe. Building materials or features alone or detection and fireextinguishing equipment alone cannot provide maximum safety from fire in buildings. A proper combination of

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Tag: Design Strength Design for Flexure

Article 9.44 summarizes the basic assumptions for strength design of flexural members. The following formulas are derived from those assumptions. The area As of tension reinforcement in a reinforced-concrete flexural member can be expressed as the ratio where b = beam width and d = effective beam depth  distance from the extreme compression surface to centroid of tension reinforcement. At

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Tag: Design Mix Design

Concrete mixes are designed with the aid of test records obtained from field experience with the materials to be used. When field test results are not available, other means of mix proportioning can be used as described in this article. In any case, the proportions of ingredients must be selected to produce, so that for any three test specimens, the average strength equals or

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Tag: Design Design Aids and References

Design procedures using either the ASD or the LRFD specifications require the use of many numerical values which represent the section properties of the individual shapes or plates under consideration. Several publications in the form of handbooks have been developed by the industry to provide the designer with this and other useful information. In addition, many steel producers publish handbooks which  provide section property

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Tag: Design Earthquake Loads

The seismic loads on the structure during an earthquake result from inertia forces which were created by ground accelerations. The magnitude of these loads is a function of the following factors: mass of the building, the dynamic properties of the building, the intensity, duration, and frequency content of the ground motion, and soil-structure interaction. In recent years, a lot of achievements have been made to

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Tag: Design Design Management

Architects manage all aspects of project design simultaneously, their own internal resources, relations with the specialty consultants, the processes that deliver service to the client, and through that service, the programs of client needs through the development process to the creation of a built environment. The requirement that architects be capable businesspersons is, therefore, far-reaching. The need for good business sense and a thorough knowledge

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Tag: Design Highway Design Loadings

The AASHTO ‘‘Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges’’ require bridges to be designed to carry dead and live loads and impact, or the dynamic effect of the live load. Structures should also be capable of sustaining other loads to which they may be subjected, such as longitudinal, centrifugal, thermal, seismic, and erection forces. Various combinations of these loads must be considered as designated in groups

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Tag: Design Plastic Design

Structural steel members often have considerable reserve load-carrying capacity after yielding occurs, e.g., at the outer surfaces of a beam. For a flexural member, this reserve capacity is quantified by the shape factor Z/S of the cross section, where Z is the plastic section modulus and S is the corresponding elastic section modulus. For W shapes, Z/S ranges from 1.10 to 1.15. The AISC

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Tag: Design Design and build procedures and other options

(a) Design and build or ‘turn-key’ contracts Contracts of this type are often for a lump sum which can suit a promoter who wants certainty of price, and who can be given a clear idea of what he is being offered. For instance, the contractor may be able to offer an ‘off the shelf’ design for a type of structure he has previously

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