Tag Archive for Tag: Earthquake

Tag: Earthquake Lateral Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls During Earthquakes

Ground motions during an earthquake tend to increase the earth pressure above the static earth pressure. Retaining walls with horizontal backfills designed with a factor of safety of 1.5 for static loading are expected to withstand horizontal accelerations up to 0.2g. For larger accelerations, and for walls with sloping backfill, additional allowances should be made for the earthquake forces. Murphy (1960)

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Tag: Earthquake Scenario earthquakes for the bridge location

The seismic hazard at a given site represents the sum of the hazard contributions of different earthquakes at different distances from the site. For each site, however, there are a few earthquakes that have dominant contributions to the hazard. These earthquakes are normally referred to as scenario or predominant earthquakes. The shape of the uniform hazard spectrum for a given site, representing the

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Tag: Earthquake Earthquake damage in historical mosques

Among the historical mosques surveyed, Düzce Merkez, 600-year-old Imaret, 500-year-old Kadi, 300-year-old Sarachane, and 200-year-old Yildirim Bayezid mosques observed to suffer significant structural damage after the 1999 earthquakes (Dognagun and Sezen, 2012). The Yıldırım Bayezid mosque was originally built in 1382 and was burned down in the 19th century. A new structure was constructed after the fire, and it was severely damaged during a

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Tag: Earthquake Observed earthquake damage

The Figure 6 shows the damage distribution for the mosques and minarets surveyed. Damage distribution for RC mosques and minarets are presented in Figures 6c and 6d separately. Comparison of Figures 6a and 6c indicates that the damage in RC mosques was less as compared to other structural systems. More than ten percent of the mosques surveyed collapsed. Three of the 26 mosques surveyed

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Tag: Earthquake USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

In the United States, the USGS incorporates different geophysics and geological information to continually update the National Seismic Hazard Maps for log-term ground motion forecasts[4, 3]. In USGS hazard maps, source models, including seismicity models and faults source models, and attenuation relations are two main components[3]. The Southern California is included in the western U.S. hazard maps, so here we take western U.S. as

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Tag: Earthquake Specified seismic fault and design seismic motion

Analysis and consequent account of initial accelerograms transformation will become the basis for site effect analysis at strong seismic loadings (fig. 17) (Zaalishvili et al., 2010). Methods of such modeling are based on accordance of spectral properties of modeled and real earthquake. In a whole modeling accuracy depending on the purposes of total motion usage and what characteristics defining structural system behavior must

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Tag: Earthquake Relief influence on the earthquake intensity in SMZ problems

Morphological and morphometric features of relief meso- and macroforms influences on seismic intensity increment. On basis of the analysis of numerous macroseismic observations the consequences of strong earthquakes, which took place on the territory of the former USSR, S.V.Puchkov and D.V.Garagozov offered the empirical formula for the intensity increment calculation (ΔI) depending on relief feature (Puchkov, Garagozov, 1973): where Wgr, Wet are the accelerations

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Tag: Earthquake Estimation of earthquake effect

Earthquake effect was estimated using two different parameters: macroseismic intensity and peak ground acceleration (PGA). Macroseismic intensity (MSK scale) was traditionally used for seismic zonation in former USSR. Macroseismic and instrumental data on 43 significant earthquakes occurred in Caucasus were revised to obtain the necessary information (Javakhishvili et al. 1998). Data on 37 earthquakes was selected and in some cases

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Tag: Earthquake Definition of earthquake sources

As a rule, today probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard is used all over the world for the identification of seismic loads for the engineering projects. The probabilistic approach is a more systematized method for the assessment of quantity, sizes and location of future earthquakes (Bazzuro & Cornell, 1999; Cornell, 1968; McGuire, 1995) than any other methods. Formal procedures for the probabilistic assessment include the

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Tag: Earthquake Probabilistic seismic demand analysis through a reliability-based design approach

The reliability of a structural system or lifeline may be referred to as the ability of the system or its components to perform their required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Because of uncertainties in loading and capacity, the subject usually includes probabilistic methods and is often made through indices such as a safety index or the probability of the

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