Tag Archive for Tag: Foundation

Tag: Foundation Floating Foundation

General Consideration A floating foundation for a building is defined as a foundation in which the weight of the building is approximately equal to the full weight including water of the soil removed from the site of the building. This principle of flotation may be explained with reference to Fig. 14.4. Fig. 14.4(a) shows a horizontal ground surface with a

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Tag: Foundation Foundations on Rock

Rocks encountered in nature might be igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic. Granite and basalt belong to the first group. Granite is primarily composed of feldspar, quartz and mica possesses a massive structure. Basalt is a dark-colored fine grained rock. Both basalt and granite under unweathered conditions serve as a very good foundation base. The most important rocks that belong to the

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Tag: Foundation Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope

There are occasions where structures are required to be built on slopes or near the edges of slopes. Since full formations of shear zones under ultimate loading conditions are not possible on the sides close to the slopes or edges, the supporting capacity of soil on that side get considerably reduced. Meyerhof (1957) extended his theories to include the effect

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Tag: Foundation Shallow foundation ultimate bearing capacity

It is the customary practice to regard a foundation as shallow if the depth of the foundation is less than or equal to the width of the foundation. The different types of footings that we normally come across are given in Fig. 12.1. A foundation is an integral part of a structure. The stability of a structure depends upon the

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Tag: Foundation Judging the safe bearing value of a foundation

The safe bearing value for a given foundation material ought not to be decided by the resident engineer but by the engineer or his specialist advisers. However, the engineer will not thank the resident engineer for referring to him questions about foundation materials which are obviously satisfactory, such as gravel and rock, where the load thereon is well within the traditionally accepted bearing strength.

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Tag: Foundation Cost Effective Construction Techniques

Extensive research and development works have been taken place at various research centres to use local materials, waste materials and prefabricated structural components to reduce the cost of construction. Some of the improved cost effective technology are listed below: 1. Foundation: Under reamed piles for foundations have been developed for housing in black cotton soil area. 2. Damp Proof Courses:

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Tag: Foundation Foundations in Black Cotton Soil

Black cotton soil swells during rainy season and cracks in summer due to shrinkage. These shrinkage cracks are 100 mm to 150 mm wide and 0.5 m to 2 m deep. Swelling creates upwards pressure on the structure and shrinkage creates downward pull. It results into cracks in foundations wall and roof. Hence foundation in black cotton soil need special

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Tag: Foundation Pile Foundations

These foundations are known as deep foundations. A pile is a slender column made of wood, concrete or steel. A pile is either driven into the soil or formed in situ by excavating a hole and then filling it with concrete. A group of piles are driven to the required depth and are capped with R.C.C. slab, over which super

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Tag: Foundation Arch Foundation

Inverted arch foundations are provided in the places where the SBC of the soil is very poor and the load of the structure is through walls. In such cases inverted arches are constructed between the walls. End walls should be sufficiently thick and strong to withstand the outward horizontal thrust due to arch action. The outer walls may be provided with buttress walls

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Tag: Foundation Grillage Footing

High rise buildings are built with steel columns encased in concrete. Such columns carry very heavy load and hence they need special foundations to spread the load to a larger area of soil. Grillage foundation is one such special foundation. It consists of one tier or more tiers of I-sections steel beams. Figure 7.7 shows a typical two tier grillage

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