Tag Archive for Tag: Load

Tag: Load Load Capacity of Bolts

Under service conditions, bolts may be loaded in tension, shear, or a combination of tension and shear. The load capacities specified in AISC ASD and LRFD specifications are closely related and are based on the ‘‘Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts,’’ Research Council on Structural Connections of the Engineering Foundation. Both bearing-type and slip-critical bolted connections are proportional for the shear

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Tag: Load Design Loads

Loads are the external forces acting on a structure. Stresses are the internal forces that resist them. Depending on that manner in which the loads are applied, they tend to deform the structure and its components—tensile forces tend to stretch, compressive forces to squeeze together, torsional forces to twist, and shearing forces to slide parts of the structure past each other. Types of Loads

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Tag: Load Design Loadings

Bridges must be designed to carry the specified dead loads, live loads and impact, as well as centrifugal, wind, other lateral loads, loads from continuous welded rail, longitudinal loads and earthquake loads. The forces and stresses from each of these specified loads should be a separate part of the design calculations. Also, because rail cars have changed in size and weight over the years

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Tag: Load Repetitive Loadings

Most structural damage to steel bridges is the result of repetitive loading from trucks or wind. Often, the damage is caused by secondary effects, for example, when live loads are distributed transversely through cross frames and induce large out-of-plane distortions that were not taken into account in design of the structure. Such strains may initiate small fatigue cracks. Under repetitive loads, the cracks grow.

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Tag: Load Dynamic Method of Seismic Load Distribution

The ‘‘Uniform Building Code’’ static-force method (Art. 9.4) is based on a single-mode response with approximate load distributions and corrections for higher-mode response. These simplifications are appropriate for simple. regular structures. However, they do not consider the full range of seismic behavior in complex structures. The dynamic method of seismic analysis is required for many structures with unusual or irregular geometry, since it results

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Tag: Load Dead-Load Deflection

Although, in general, building codes restrict the magnitude of live-load deflections, they do not contain criteria or limitations relating to dead-load deflections. The dead-load deflection of the floor framing system will not affect the levelness of the floor surface if the concrete is finished level despite the deflection or if the floor framing members are cambered for deflection due to the concrete dead

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Tag: Load Fatigue Loading

Fatigue damage may occur to members supporting machinery, cranes, vehicles, and other mobile equipment. Such damage is not likely in members subject to few load changes or small stress fluctuations. For example, full design wind or seismic loads occur too infrequently to justify stress reductions for fatigue. Fatigue as a design consideration is affected by the magnitude of the stress range, the number of

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Tag: Load Types of Loads

Loads are forces that act or may act on a structure. For the purpose of predicting the resulting behavior of the structure, the loads, or external influences, including forces, consequent displacements, and support settlements, are presumed to be known. These influences may be specified by law, e.g., building codes, codes of recommended practice, or owner specifications, or they may be

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