Tag Archive for Tag: Masonry

Tag: Masonry Example of Strength Design of Unreinforced Masonry Shear Wall

Consider the simple structure of Fig. 5.21, the same one whose bearing walls have been designed previously in this book. Use nominal 8-in. concrete masonry units, f ′ m = 1500 lb/in.2, and Type S PCL mortar. The roof applies a gravity load of 1050 lb/ft to the walls; the walls measure 16 ft, 8 in. height to the roof,

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Tag: Masonry Extension of the Above Concepts to Masonry Walls with Openings

In the previous examples, we have studied the behavior of bearing walls of unreinforced masonry, idealized as a series of vertical strips, simply supported at the level of the floor slab, and at the level of the roof. Let’s see how this changes in the case of bearing walls with openings. In Fig. 5.17, load applied above the window and

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Tag: Masonry How This Book Classifies Masonry Elements

In this book, masonry elements are distinguished first by strength design versus allowable-stress design, then by whether they are designed as unreinforced or reinforced, and finally by their structural function. Elements Designed by the Strength Approach Structural Design of Unreinforced Masonry Elements Nonbearing Elements • Unreinforced panel walls Bearing Elements • Unreinforced bearing walls with eccentric gravity load • Unreinforced

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Tag: Masonry How Reinforcement Is Used in Masonry Elements

Masonry Beams and Lintels These require horizontal reinforcement placed in hollow bond-beam units, or in fully grouted cavities between wythes of solid clay masonry units. Examples of these are shown in Figs. 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. As noted in later sections dealing with the design of masonry beams and lintels, it is not necessary to use so-called “trough units” in

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Tag: Masonry Basic Mechanical Behavior of Masonry

Masonry is a composite material, comprising units, mortar, grout, and accessory materials. Because of this, its mechanical behavior is complex. Using nonlinear finite-element analysis, addressing the behavior of constituent materials and of the interface relationships between them, it is possible to describe the force-deformation behavior of masonry elements. For design, however, this approach is neither practical nor necessary. For design

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Tag: Masonry How to Increase Resistance of Masonry to Water Penetration

Water penetration resistance of masonry depends on wall type, workmanship, and materials. In this section, additional information is presented on each of these. 1. Specification and design: a. Specify and design wall types appropriate for the severity of driving rain expected in the geographic location of the building. In areas of severe driving rain, specify a drainage wall or a

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Tag: Masonry Examples of Construction Details for Masonry Structures Requiring Little Structural Calculation

Examples of construction details for masonry structures requiring little calculation are given in the sections and figures below. These details are  generic in nature. These can be supplemented by the details provided in NCMA and BIA technical notes. 1. Overall modularity: a. Overall modularity of the CMU wythe will be satisfied provided that the interior nominal dimensions of the CMU wythe

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Tag: Masonry Masonry Accessory Materials

Masonry accessory materials include reinforcement, connectors, sealants, flashing, coatings, and vapor barriers and moisture barriers. Each of these is described further below. Reinforcement Reinforcement consists of the following: • Steel deformed reinforcing bars meeting the requirements of ASTM A615 (billet steel) or A996 (rail and axle steel), or ASTM A706 (low-alloy weldable steel) • Joint reinforcement (ASTM A951) • Deformed

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Tag: Masonry General Information on ASTM Specifications for Masonry Units

Definitions of terms are given in ASTM C1180 (Standard Terminology of Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry) and in ASTM C1232 (Standard Terminology of Masonry). General Information on ASTM Specifications for Clay or Shale Masonry Units ASTM specifications for clay or shale masonry units are summarized below: • ASTM C62: Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale) • ASTM C216:

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Tag: Masonry Note on Cement-Lime Mortars versus Masonry-Cement Mortars

At times in the past, and to some extent even to this day, controversy has existed within the masonry technical community over the comparative performance of cement-lime mortar and masonry-cement mortar. Each cementitious system has advantages and disadvantages. Each has demonstrated general suitability for use and also general cost-effectiveness for suppliers and users. Masonry cement complies with the physical property

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