Tag Archive for Tag: observations

Tag: observations Reciprocal vertical angles

The height differences between control points are often explicitly required in engineering surveying work. Even when they are not, they must (for instance) be found before distance measurements can be used in accurate surveying work, as shown in Chapter 11. The methods for measuring height differences covered earlier in this book are levelling (for short distances, or for maximum accuracy

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Tag: observations Adjustment of observations

10.1 Introduction The term ‘adjustment’ suggests that some form of cheating might take place during the process of converting surveying observations into results. This is not necessarily the case. As explained in Chapter 2, surveying observations always have two particular properties: 1 they contain errors (random, systematic and the occasional gross error); 2 the system of observations should always be

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