Tag Archive for Tag: permanent adjustments

Tag: permanent adjustments Levelling

Levelling is the process of finding the height of a new point or points by comparison with that of an existing point which has been selected as a datum or whose height is already known with respect to some other datum. If the points are close to each other and only their relative heights are needed, the simplest procedure is

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Tag: permanent adjustments Angle measurement

A number of the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 require the measurement of angles, to a greater or lesser degree of accuracy. Horizontal and vertical angles can be measured approximately using a compass and clinometer, respectively; for more accurate work, a theodolite or total station will be needed. This chapter explains in detail how angles are measured using these instruments.

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