Tag Archive for Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering

Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering What is the purpose of skin reinforcement for deep beams?

In BS8110, it states that secondary reinforcement should be provided for beams exceeding 750mm deep at a distance measured 2/3 depth from the tension face. Experimental works revealed that at or close to mid-depth of deep beams, the maximum width of cracks arising from flexure may be about two to three times larger than the width of the same crack

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering What is the difference between epoxy grout, cement grout and cement mortar?

Epoxy grout consists of epoxy resin, epoxy hardener and sand/aggregates. In fact, there are various types of resin used in construction industry like epoxy, polyester, polyurethane etc. Though epoxy grout appears to imply the presence of cement material by its name, it does not contain any cement at all. On the other hand, epoxy hardener serves to initiate the hardening

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering For column reinforcements, why is helical reinforcement sometimes designed instead of normal links?

The use of links for column design in Britain is very popular. However, in U.S.A. engineers tend to use helical reinforcement instead of normal links because helical reinforcement has the potential advantage of protecting columns/piles against seismic loads. Moreover, when the columns reach the failure state, the concrete outside hoops cracks and falls off firstly, followed by the eventual failure

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering What is the difference in application between open stirrups and closed stirrups in concrete beams?

Open stirrups are provided principally to resist shear forces in concrete beams and they are applied in locations in which the effect of torsion is insignificant. U-shaped stirrups are placed in the tension side of concrete beams in which shear cracks would occur. However, when concrete beams are designed to resist a substantial amount of torsion, closed stirrups should be

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering For long slender structures like beams, propping is required after removal of formwork. Why?

After concreting, the time at which striking of formworks should not be too long, otherwise it would affect the colour of concreted structures. For long span concrete structures, when they have attained sufficient strength to support their self-weight, creep deflection may occur in these structures if propping is not provided after the removal of formwork. Therefore, re-propping is carried out

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering General Specification for Civil Engineering Works (1992 Edition) Clause 15.09 specifies that tying wires for reinforcement adjacent to and above Class F4 and F5 finishes should be stainless steel wires. Why?

If plain steel tying wires are used for reinforcement adjacent to Class F4 and F5 finishes, it poses the problem of rust staining which may impair the appearance of exposed concrete surfaces. The rate of corrosion of plain steel tying wires is similar to normal steel reinforcement. However, for tying wires with very small diameter, upon long exposure it stands

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering Does the presence of rust have adverse impact to the bond performance of bar reinforcement?

In fact, the presence of rust in bars may not have adverse impact to the bond performance and it depends on the types of bar reinforcement under consideration. For plain round bars, the rust on bars improves the bond performance by the formation of rough surfaces which increases the friction between steel and concrete. However, for deformed bars, the same

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering Can a concrete structure be completely free of expansion joints and contraction joints?

Consider that the concrete structure is not subject to the problem of differential settlement. For contraction joints, it may be possible to design a concrete structure without any contraction joints. By using sufficient steel reinforcement to spread evenly the crack width over the span length of the structure, it may achieve the requirement of minimum crack width and cause no

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering Which type of bar reinforcement is more corrosion resistant, epoxy-coated bars, stainless steel bars or galvanized bars?

Based on the experiment conducted by the Building Research Establishment, it was shown that the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel was the worst among the three types of bar reinforcement. For galvanized steel bars, corrosion started to occur when a certain chloride content in concrete (i.e. 0.4% by cement weight) was exceeded. However, for epoxy-coated bars, they extended the time

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Tag: Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering Can grout replace concrete in normal structure?

The mixture of cement and water alone cannot replace concrete (Longman Scientific and Technical (1987)) because: (i) Shrinkage of grout is several times that of concrete with the same mass. (ii) The effect of creep of grout is far more than that of concrete. (iii) Heat of hydration of cement with water is more than normal concrete and this leads

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