# Tag: Strain Bending Stresses and Strains in Beams

Beams are structural members subjected to lateral forces that cause bending. There are distinct relationships between the load on a beam, the resulting internal forces and moments, and the corresponding deformations. Consider the uniformly loaded beam with a symmetrical cross section in Fig. 3.22. Subjected to bending, the beam carries this load to the two supporting ends, one of which

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# Tag: Strain Stress-Strain Relationships

Structural steels display linearly elastic properties when the load does not exceed a certain limit. Steels also are isotropic; i.e., the elastic properties are the same in all directions. The material also may be assumed homogeneous, so the smallest element of a steel member possesses the same physical property as the member. It is because of these properties that there is a linear relationship

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# Tag: Strain Components of Stress and Strain

Suppose that a plane cut is made through a solid in equilibrium under the action of some forces (Fig. 3.12a). The distribution of force on the area A in the plane may be represented by an equivalent resultant force RA through point O (also in the plane) and a couple producing moment MA (Fig. 3.12b). Three mutually perpendicular axes x, y, and z

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# Tag: Strain Stress-Strain Diagrams

Suppose that a homogeneous steel bar with a constant cross-sectional area A is subjected to tension under axial load P (Fig. 3.10a). A gage length L is selected away from the ends of the bar, to avoid disturbances by the end attachments that apply the load. The load P is increased in increments, and the corresponding elongation  of the original

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# Tag: Strain Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties

Tensile properties of structural steels are usually determined at relatively slow strain rates to obtain information appropriate for designing structures subjected to static loads. In the design of structures subjected to high loading rates, such as those caused by impact loads, however, it may be necessary to consider the variation in tensile properties with strain rate. Figure 1.8 shows the

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# Tag: Strain Tensile Properties

The tensile properties of steel are generally determined from tension tests on small specimens or coupons in accordance with standard ASTM procedures. The behavior of steels in these tests is closely related to the behavior of structural-steel members under static loads. Because, for structural steels, the yield points and moduli of elasticity determined in tension and compression are nearly the

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