Tag Archive for Tag: tension

Tag: tension Development, Anchorage, and Splices of Reinforcement

Steel reinforcement must be bonded to the concrete sufficiently so that the steel will yield before it is freed from the concrete. Despite assumptions made in the past to the contrary, bond stress between concrete and reinforcing bars is not uniform over a given length, not directly related to the perimeter of the bars, not equal in tension and compression, and may be affected

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Tag: tension Bearing-Type Bolted Connections

When some slip, although very small, may occur between connected parts, the  fasteners are assumed to function in shear. The presence of paint on contact surfaces is therefore of no consequence. Fasteners may be A307 bolts or high-strength bolts or any other similar fastener not dependent on development of friction on the contact surfaces. Single shear occurs when opposing forces act on a

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Tag: tension Tension Members

These are proportioned so that their gross and net areas are large enough to resist imposed loads. The criteria for determining the net area of a tension member with bolt holes is the same for allowable stress design and load-and-resistance-factor design. In determination of net area, the width of a bolt hole should be taken 1⁄16 in larger than the nominal dimension of the

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Tag: tension Member Design Example-LRFD

The design of a truss hanger by the AASHTO LRFD Specifications is presented subsequently. This is preceded by the following introduction to the LRFD member design provisions. LRFD Member Design Provisions Tension Members. The net area, An, of a member is the sum of the products of thickness and the smallest net width of each element. The width of each standard

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Tag: tension Basic Allowable Stresses

Table 11.29 lists the allowable stresses for railroad bridges recommended in the AREMA Manual. The stresses, ksi, are related to the specified minimum yield stress Fy , or the specified minimum tensile strength Fu , ksi, of the material except where stresses are independent of the grade of steel. The basic stresses may be increased for loading combinations (Art. 11.35.12), or may be superseded

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Tag: tension Criteria for Built-Up Tension Members

A tension member and all its components must be proportioned to meet the requirements for maximum slenderness ratio given in Table 11.24. The member also must be designed to ensure that the allowable tensile stress on the net section is not exceeded. The net section of a high-strength-bolted tension member is the sum of the net sections of its components. The net section

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Tag: tension Basic Allowable Stresses for Bridges

Table 11.16 lists the basic allowable stresses for highway bridges recommended in AASHTO  ‘‘Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges’’ for ASD. The stresses are related to the minimum yield strength Fy , ksi, or minimum tensile strength Fu, ksi, of the material in all cases except those for which stresses are independent of the grade of steel being used. The basic stresses may

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Tag: tension Screw Connections

Screws are frequently used for connections in cold-formed steel because they can be driven with a hand-held drill, usually without punching a hole. The AISI Specification gives provisions for calculating nominal strength for self-tapping screws with 0.08 The distance between the centers of fasteners, and the distance from the center of a fastener to the edge of any part, must

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Tag: tension Bolted Connections

Bolted connections of cold-formed steel members are designed as bearing type connections. Bolt pretensioning is not required and installation should be to the snug-tight condition. The AISI Specification gives applicable provisions when the thickness, t, of the thinnest connected part is less than 3⁄16 in (4.76 mm). For thicker members, the AISC Specification applies. The most commonly used grades are A307 carbon

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Tag: tension Tension Members

The nominal tensile strength, Tn, of an axial loaded tension member is the smallest of three limit states: (1) yielding in the gross section, Eq. 10.22; (2) fracture in the net section away from the connections, Eq. 10.23; and (3) fracture in the net section at connections (Art. 10.18.2) where Ag is the gross cross section area, An is the

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