Tag Archive for Tag: Vertical angles

Tag: Vertical angles Reciprocal vertical angles

The height differences between control points are often explicitly required in engineering surveying work. Even when they are not, they must (for instance) be found before distance measurements can be used in accurate surveying work, as shown in Chapter 11. The methods for measuring height differences covered earlier in this book are levelling (for short distances, or for maximum accuracy

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Tag: Vertical angles Angle measurement

A number of the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 require the measurement of angles, to a greater or lesser degree of accuracy. Horizontal and vertical angles can be measured approximately using a compass and clinometer, respectively; for more accurate work, a theodolite or total station will be needed. This chapter explains in detail how angles are measured using these instruments.

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