Tag Archive for Tag: Water

Tag: Water Leaching by water and acids

Pure water dissolves lime and, to some extent, alumina from the compounds in the cement matrix resulting in increased permeability and eventually an amorphous residue of hydrated silica, iron oxide and alumina (Lea, 1970). This process, known as leaching, involves several stages, in which initially portlandite (CH) is dissolved and then attack on C-S-H and calcium aluminate hydrates takes place

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Tag: Water Wastewater-System Elements

The usual steps in planning a plumbing system are: (1) secure a sewer or wastedisposal plan of the site; (2) obtain architectural and structural plans and elevations of the building; (3) tabulate known and estimated occupancy data, including the number of persons, sex, work schedules, and pertinent details of any manufacturing process to be performed in the building; (4) obtain copies of the latest

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Tag: Water Water-Pipe Sizing

The required domestic-water pipe sizes should be determined by application of the principles of hydraulics. While economy dictates use of the smallest sizes of pipe permitted by building-code requirements, other factors often make larger sizes advisable. These factors include: 1. Pressure at the water-supply source, usually the public main, psi 2. Pressure required at the outlets of each fixture, psi 3. Loss

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Tag: Water Water Demand and Fixture Units

For each fixture in a building, a maximum requirement for water flow, gal /min, can be estimated. Table 14.1 indicates the minimum flow rate and pressure required by code. The maximum flow may be considerably larger. Branch pipes to each fixture should be sized to accommodate the maximum flow and minimum pressure the fixture will require. Mains serving these branches, however, need not be

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Tag: Water Water Distribution in Buildings

Cold and hot water may be conveyed to plumbing fixtures under the pressure of a water source, such as a public water main, by pumps, or by gravity flow from elevated storage tanks. The water-distribution system should be so laid out that, at each plumbing fixture requiring both hot and cold water, the pressures at the outlets for both supplies should be nearly equal.

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Tag: Water Water Quantity and Pressures

Quantity of water supplied must be adequate for the needs of occupants and processes to be carried out in the building. The total water demand may be calculated by adding the maximum flows at all points of use and applying a factor less than unity to account for the probability that only some of the fixtures will be operated simultaneously (Art. 14.8). In addition,

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Tag: Water Water Quality

Sources of water for buildings include public water supplies, groundwater, and surface water. Each source requires careful study to determine if a sufficient quantity of safe water is available for the building being designed. Water for human consumption, commonly called potable water, must be of suitable quality to meet local, state, and national requirements. Public water supplies generally furnish suitably treated water to a

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