# Introduction to Soil-Structure Interaction

First the very definition of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects is discussed, because it is somewhat peculiar: every seismic structural response is caused by soil-structure interaction forces, but only in certain situations they talk about soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects. Then a brief history of this research field is given covering the last 70 years.

Basic superposition of wave fields is discussed as a common basis for different approaches – direct and impedance ones, first of all. Then both approaches are described and applied to a simple 1D SSI problem enabling the exact solution. Special attention is paid to the substitution of the boundary conditions in the direct approach often used in practice. Impedance behavior is discussed separately with principal differentiation of quasi-homogeneous sites and sites with bedrock. Locking and unlocking of layered sites is discussed as one of the main wave effects. Practical tools to deal with SSI are briefly described, namely LUSH, SASSI and CLASSI.

Combined asymptotic method (CAM) is presented.

Nowadays SSI models are linear. Nonlinearity of the soil and soil-structure contact is treated in a quasi-linear way. Special approach used in SHAKE code is discussed and illustrated.

Some non-mandatory additional assumptions (rigidity of the base mat, horizontal layering of the soil, vertical propagation of seismic waves) often used in SSI, are discussed. Finally, two of the SSI effects are shown on a real world example of the NPP building. The first effect is soil flexibility; the second effect is embedment of the base mat. Recommendations to engineers are summed in conclusions.