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Post-earthquake surveys

The data presented here are based on observations from two surveys conducted after the August 17 and November 12, 1999 earthquakes. Damage to historical and recently constructed mosques and minarets was documented to investigate the seismic performance of these structures. The main objectives of these surveys were to provide detailed information about the characteristics of the observed damage, and to study the relative vulnerability of these historical and modern structures to strong ground motions. The parameters considered in the survey included: type of construction material, minaret height, location and description of damage, and location (coordinates, if available). Vast majority of the surveyed minarets and mosques were located in the cities of Düzce and Bolu. The peak ground accelerations recorded in Düzce during both earthquakes were larger than 0.30g (Figure 1), whereas that recorded in Bolu was reported as 0.82g after the November 12, 1999 earthquake.
Structural performance levels and corresponding representative sample damage descriptions for mosques and minarets are shown in Table 1. It should be noted that nonstructural damage is irrelevant for minarets. In general, damage to the non-structural components of the mosques was insignificant as compared to the total structural damage.
A total of 59 sites were visited after the October 12, 1999 Duzce earthquake (second earthquake). The name, location, construction date, and observed damage levels are provided in Tables 2 and 3. The first 22 mosques listed in Table 2 were located in the city of Duzce and neighboring town of Kaynasli. Mosques numbered 23 through 44 were located in the city of Bolu.

Before mid-1960s, major construction materials were wood and stone or brick masonry.
Most of the recently constructed mosques and minarets were reinforced concrete. All of the reinforced concrete mosques were built after 1965. In older mosques, solid bricks were used in infill walls. Hollow clay tiles were used as infill material in the mosques built after late 1970s. As shown in Figure 5, 84 percent of the minarets surveyed in Duzce and Kaynasli were reinforced concrete, whereas only 46 percent of the minarets were reinforced concrete in Bolu. Unreinforced stone masonry was commonly used in old minarets as well as in the minarets constructed in recent years.