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Summary and conclusions of Seismic Performance

Structural damage and failures observed in 59 historical and monumental structures (mosques and/or minarets) were documented after the August 17 and November 12, 1999 earthquakes. The reported damage distribution in minarets in the cities of Düzce and Bolu gives an indication of the extent of damage. Ten percent of all visited mosques collapsed while 20% suffered severe damage. Of all visited minarets, 38 percent collapsed (Figure 6). Five out of seven masonry minarets (approximately 70%) in the cities of Düzce and Bolu reporeted in this chapter collapsed (Table 4).
Historical structures with heavy and stiff walls are subjected to larger lateral earthquake forces due to their small periods of vibration. The missing keystones in the upper-floor windows and wide cracks between the stones in the walls above and below window openings were the most common damage types.
The location of the failure in the minarets that collapsed during the 1999 earthquakes was generally at the region near the bottom of the cylinder where a transition was made from a square to a circular section. At the bottom of the cylinder body the lateral stiffness and strength are smaller compared with those of the transition region or the minaret base.
Consistent with the observed damage, dynamic analysis results from three generic finite element minaret models showed the largest bending stresses in the same region of the minaret models. For minarets with the base or boot attached to the mosque structure (Type II), additional rigidity and stiffness provided by the mosque prevents deformation and damage within the base. In such cases the failure mostly occurs just above the transition region or base of the cylindrical body.