Counterfort wall problem example

A counterfort wall of 10 m height retains a non-cohesive backfill. The void ratio and angle of internal friction of the backfill respectively are 0.70 and 30° in the loose state and they are 0.40 and 40° in the dense state. Calculate and compare active and passive earth pressures for both the cases.
Take the specific gravity of solids as 2.7.
(i) In the loose state, e – 0.70 which gives
Comment: The comparison of the results indicates that densification of soil decreases the active earth pressure and increases the passive earth pressure. This is advantageous in the sense that active earth pressure is a disturbing force and passive earth pressure is a resisting force.