## Mats on Sand

Because the differential settlements of a mat foundation are less than those of a spread foundation designed for the same soil pressure, it is reasonable to permit larger safe soil pressures on a raft foundation. Experience has shown that a pressure approximately twice as great as that allowed for individual footings may be used because it does not lead to detrimental differential settlements. The maximum settlement of a mat may be about 50 mm (2 in) instead of 25 mm as for a spread foundation.
The shape of the curve in Fig. 13.3(a) shows that the net soil pressure corresponding to a given settlement is practically independent of the width of the footing or mat when the width becomes large. The safe soil pressure for design may with sufficient accuracy be taken as twice the pressure indicated in Fig. 13.5. Peck et al., (1974) recommend the following equation for computing net safe pressure,

where Ncor is the SPT value corrected for energy, overburden pressure and field procedures. Eq. 14.1 gives qs values above the water table. A correction factor should be used for the presence of a water table as explained in Chapter 12.
Peck et al., (1974) also recommend that the qs values as given by Eq. 14.1 may be increased somewhat if bedrock is encountered at a depth less than about one half the width of the raft.
The value of N to be considered is the average of the values obtained up to a depth equal to the least width of the raft. If the average value of N after correction for the influence of overburden pressure and dilatancy is less than about 5, Peck et al., say that the sand is generally considered to be too loose for the successful use of a raft foundation. Either the sand should be compacted or else the foundation should be established on piles or piers.
The minimum depth of foundation recommended for a raft is about 2.5 m below the surrounding ground surface. Experience has shown that if the surcharge is less than this amount, the edges of the raft settle appreciably more than the interior because of a lack of confinement of the sand.

## Safe Bearing Pressures of Mats on Clay

The quantity in Eq. 12.25(b) is the net bearing capacity qm at the elevation of the base of the raft in excess of that exerted by the surrounding surcharge. Likewise, in Eq. 12.25(c), qna is the net allowable soil pressure. By increasing the depth of excavation, the pressure that can safely be exerted by the building is correspondingly increased. This aspect of the problem is considered further in Section 14.10 in floating foundation. As for footings on clay, the factor of safety against failure of the soil beneath a mat on clay should not be less than 3 under normal loads, or less than 2 under the most extreme loads. The settlement of the mat under the given loading condition should be calculated as per the procedures explained in Chapter 13. The net safe pressure should be decided on the basis of the permissible settlement.