Structural Steel

Section 1. Properties of Structural Steels and Effects of Steelmaking and Fabrication

—–1.1. Structural Steel Shapes and Plates
—–1.2. Steel-Quality Designations
—–1.3. Relative Cost of Structural Steels
—–1.4. Steel Sheet and Strip for Structural Applications
—–1.5. Tubing for Structural Applications
—–1.6. Steel Cable for Structural Applications
—–1.7. Tensile Properties
—–1.8. Properties in Shear
—–1.9. Hardness Tests
—–1.10. Effect of Cold Work on Tensile Properties
—–1.11. Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties
—–1.12. Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Tensile Properties
—–1.13. Fatigue
—–1.14. Brittle Fracture
—–1.15. Residual Stresses
—–1.16. Lamellar Tearing
—–1.17. Welded Splices in Heavy Sections
—–1.18. k-Area Cracking
—–1.19. Variations in Mechanical Properties
—–1.20. Changes in Carbon Steels on Heating and Cooling
—–1.21. Effects of Grain Size
—–1.22. Annealing and Normalizing
—–1.23. Effects of Chemistry on Steel Properties
—–1.24. Steelmaking Methods
—–1.25. Casting and Hot Rolling
—–1.26. Effects of Punching Holes and Shearing
—–1.27. Effects of Welding
—–1.28. Effects of Thermal Cutting

Section 2. Fabrication and Erection

—–2.1. Shop Detail Drawings
—–2.2. Cutting, Shearing, and Sawing
—–2.3. Punching and Drilling
—–2.4. CNC Machines
—–2.5. Bolting
—–2.6. Welding
—–2.7. Camber
—–2.8. Shop Preassembly
—–2.9. Rolled Sections
—–2.10. Built-Up Sections
—–2.11. Cleaning and Painting
—–2.12. Fabrication Tolerances
—–2.13. Erection Equipment
—–2.14. Erection Methods for Buildings
—–2.15. Erection Procedure for Bridges
—–2.16. Field Tolerances
—–2.17. Safety Concerns

Section 3. General Structural Theory

—–3.1. Fundamentals of Structural Theory
—–3.2. Principles of Forces
—–3.3. Moments of Forces
—–3.4. Equations of Equilibrium
—–3.5. Frictional Forces
—–3.6. Kinematics
—–3.7. Kinetics
—–3.8. Stress-Strain Diagrams
—–3.9. Components of Stress and Strain
—–3.10. Stress-Strain Relationships
—–3.11. Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress
—–3.12. Mohr’s Circle
—–3.13. Types of Structural Members and Supports
—–3.14. Axial-Force Members
—–3.15. Members Subjected to Torsion
—–3.16. Bending Stresses and Strains in Beams
—–3.17. Shear Stresses in Beams
—–3.18. Shear, Moment, and Deformation Relationships in Beams
—–3.19. Shear Deflections in Beams
—–3.20. Members Subjected to Combined Forces
—–3.21. Unsymmetrical Bending
—–3.22. Work of External Forces
—–3.23. Virtual Work and Strain Energy
—–3.24. Castigliano’s Theorems
—–3.25. Reciprocal Theorems
—–3.26. Types of Loads
—–3.27. Commonly Used Structural Systems
—–3.28. Determinancy and Geometric Stability
—–3.29. Calculation of Reactions in Statically Determinate Systems
—–3.30. Forces in Statically Determinate Trusses
—–3.31. Deflections of Statically Determinate Trusses
—–3.32. Forces in Statically Determinate Beams and Frames
—–3.33. Deformations in Beams
—–3.34. Methods for Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Systems
—–3.35. Force Method (Method of Consistent Deflections)
—–3.36. Displacement Methods
—–3.37. Slope-Deflection Method
—–3.38. Moment-Distribution Method
—–3.39. Matrix Stiffness Method
—–3.40. Influence Lines
—–3.41. Elastic Flexural Buckling of Columns
—–3.42. Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams
—–3.43. Elastic Flexural Buckling of Frames
—–3.44. Local Buckling
—–3.45. Comparisons of Elastic and Inelastic Analyses
—–3.46. General Second-Order Effects
—–3.47. Approximate Amplification Factors for Second-Order Effects
—–3.48. Geometric Stiffness Matrix Method for Second-Order Effects
—–3.49. General Material Nonlinear Effects
—–3.50. Classical Methods of Plastic Analysis
—–3.51. Contemporary Methods of Inelastic Analysis
—–3.52. General Concepts of Structural Dynamics
—–3.53. Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems
—–3.54. Material Effects of Dynamic Loads
—–3.55. Repeated Loads

Section 4. Analysis of Special Structures

—–4.1. Three-Hinged Arches
—–4.2. Two-Hinged Arches
—–4.3. Fixed Arches
—–4.4. Stresses in Arch Ribs
—–4.5. Plate Domes
—–4.6. Ribbed Domes
—–4.7. Ribbed and Hooped Domes
—–4.8. Schwedler Domes
—–4.9. Simple Suspension Cables
—–4.10. Cable Suspension Systems
—–4.11. Plane-Grid Frameworks
—–4.12. Folded Plates
—–4.13. Orthotropic Plate

Section 5. Connection

—–5.1. Limitations on Use of Fasteners and Welds
—–5.2. Bolts in Combination with Welds
—–5.3. High-Strength Bolts, Nuts, and Washers
—–5.4. Carbon-Steel or Unfinished (Machine) Bolts
—–5.5. Welded Studs
—–5.6. Pins
—–5.7. Fastener Diameters
—–5.8. Fastener Holes
—–5.9. Minimum Number of Fasteners
—–5.10. Clearances for Fasteners
—–5.11. Fastener Spacing
—–5.12. Edge Distance of Fasteners
—–5.13. Fillers
—–5.14. Installation of Fasteners
—–5.15. Welding Materials
—–5.16. Types of Welds
—–5.17. Standard Welding Symbols
—–5.18. Welding Positions
—–5.19. Limitations on Fillet-Weld Dimensions
—–5.20. Limitations on Plug and Slot Weld Dimensions
—–5.21. Welding Procedures
—–5.22. Weld Quality
—–5.23. Welding Clearance and Space
—–5.24. Minimum Connections
—–5.25. Hanger Connections
—–5.26. Tension Splices
—–5.27. Compression Splices
—–5.28. Column Base Plates
—–5.29. Beam Bearing Plates
—–5.30. Shear Splices
—–5.31. Bracket Connections
—–5.32. Connections for Simple Beams
—–5.33. Moment Connections
—–5.34. Beams Seated Atop Supports
—–5.35. Truss Connections
—–5.36. Connections for Bracing
—–5.37. Crane-Girder Connections

Section 6. Building Design Criteria

—–6.1. Building Codes
—–6.2. Approval of Special Construction
—–6.3. Standard Specifications
—–6.4. Building Occupancy Loads
—–6.5. Roof Loads
—–6.6. Wind Loads
—–6.7. Seismic Loads
—–6.8. Impact Loads
—–6.9. Crane-Runway Loads
—–6.10. Restraint Loads
—–6.11. Combined Loads
—–6.12. ASD and LRFD Specifications
—–6.13. Axial Tension
—–6.14. Shear
—–6.15. Combined Tension and Shear
—–6.16. Compression
—–6.17. Bending Strength
—–6.18. Bearing
—–6.19. Combined Bending and Compression
—–6.20. Combined Bending and Tension
—–6.21. Wind and Seismic Stresses
—–6.22. Fatigue Loading
—–6.23. Local Plate Buckling
—–6.24. Design Parameters for Tension Members
—–6.25. Design Parameters for Rolled Beams and Plate Girders
—–6.26. Criteria for Composite Construction
—–6.27. Serviceability
—–6.28. Built-Up Compression Members
—–6.29. Built-Up Tension Members
—–6.30. Plastic Design
—–6.31. Hollow Structural Sections
—–6.32. Cable Construction
—–6.33. Fire Protection

Section 7. Design of Building Members

—–7.1. Tension Members
—–7.2. Comparative Designs of Double-Angle Hanger
—–7.3. Example—LRFD for Wide-Flange Truss Members
—–7.4. Compression Members
—–7.5. Example—LRFD for Steel Pipe in Axial Compression
—–7.6. Comparative Designs of Wide-Flange Section with Axial Compression
—–7.7. Example—LRFD for Double Angles with Axial Compression
—–7.8. Steel Beams
—–7.9. Comparative Designs of Single-Span Floorbeam
—–7.10. Example—LRFD for Floorbeam with Unbraced Top Flange
—–7.11. Example—LRFD for Floorbeam with Overhang
—–7.12. Composite Beams
—–7.13. LRFD for Composite Beam with Uniform Loads
—–7.14. Example—LRFD for Composite Beam with Concentrated Loads and End Moments
—–7.15. Combined Axial Load and Biaxial Bending
—–7.16. Example—LRFD for Wide-Flange Column in a Multistory Rigid Frame
—–7.17. Base Plate Design
—–7.18. Example—LRFD of Column Base Plate

Section 8. Floor and Roof Systems

—–8.1. Concrete Fill on Metal Deck
—–8.2. Precast-Concrete Plank
—–8.3. Cast-in-Place Concrete Slabs
—–8.4. Metal Roof Deck
—–8.5. Lightweight Precast-Concrete Roof Panels
—–8.6. Wood-Fiber Planks
—–8.7. Gypsum-Concrete Decks
—–8.8. Rolled Shapes
—–8.9. Open-Web Joists
—–8.10. Lightweight Steel Framing
—–8.11. Trusses
—–8.12. Stub-Girders
—–8.13. Staggered Trusses
—–8.14. Castellated Beams
—–8.15. ASD versus LRFD
—–8.16. Dead-Load Deflection
—–8.17. Fire Protection
—–8.18. Vibrations
—–8.19. Plate Girders
—–8.20. Space Frames
—–8.21. Arched Roofs
—–8.22. Dome Roofs
—–8.23. Cable Structures

Section 9. Lateral-Force Design

—–9.1. Description of Wind Forces
—–9.2. Determination of Wind Loads
—–9.3. Seismic Loads in Model Codes
—–9.4. Equivalent Static Forces for Seismic Design
—–9.5. Dynamic Method of Seismic Load Distribution
—–9.6. Structural Steel Systems for Seismic Design
—–9.7. Seismic-Design Limitations on Steel Frames
—–9.8. Forces in Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads
—–9.9. Member and Connection Design for Lateral Loads

Section 10. Cold-Formed Steel Design

—–10.1. Design Specifications and Materials
—–10.2. Manufacturing Methods and Effects
—–10.3. Nominal Loads
—–10.4. Design Methods
—–10.5. Section Property Calculations
—–10.6. Effective Width Concept
—–10.7. Maximum Width-to-Thickness Ratios
—–10.8. Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements
—–10.9. Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements
—–10.10. Effective Widths of Uniformly Compressed Elements with Edge Stiffener
—–10.11. Tension Members
—–10.12. Flexural Members
—–10.13. Concentrically Loaded Compression Members
—–10.14. Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending
—–10.15. Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending
—–10.16. Cylindrical Tubular Members
—–10.17. Welded Connections
—–10.18. Bolted Connections
—–10.19. Screw Connections
—–10.20. Other Limit States at Connections
—–10.21. Wall Stud Assemblies
—–10.22. Example of Effective Section Calculation
—–10.23. Example of Bending Strength Calculation

Section 11. Design Criteria for Bridges

Part 1. Application of Criteria for Cost-Effective Highway Bridge

—–11.1. Standard Specifications
—–11.2. Design Methods
—–11.3. Primary Design Considerations
—–11.4. Highway Design Loadings
—–11.5. Load Combinations and Effects
—–11.6. Nominal Resistance for LRFD
—–11.7. Distribution of Loads through Decks
—–11.8. Basic Allowable Stresses for Bridges
—–11.9. Fracture Control
—–11.10. Repetitive Loadings
—–11.11. Detailing for Earthquakes
—–11.12. Detailing for Buckling
—–11.13. Criteria for Built-Up Tension Members
—–11.14. Criteria for Built-Up Compression Members
—–11.15. Plate Girders and Cover-Plated Rolled Beams
—–11.16. Composite Construction with I Girders
—–11.17. Cost-Effective Plate-Girder Designs
—–11.18. Box Girders
—–11.19. Hybrid Girders
—–11.20. Orthotropic-Deck Bridges
—–11.21. Span Lengths and Deflections
—–11.22. Bearings
—–11.23. Detailing for Weldability
—–11.24. Stringer or Girder Spacing
—–11.25. Bridge Decks
—–11.26. Elimination of Expansion Joints in Highway Bridges
—–11.27. Bridge Steels and Corrosion Protection
—–11.28. Constructability
—–11.29. Inspectability
—–11.30. Reference Materials

Part 2. Railroad Bridge Design

—–11.31. Standard Specifications
—–11.32. Design Method
—–11.33. Owner’s Concerns
—–11.34. Design Considerations
—–11.35. Design Loadings
—–11.36. Composite Steel and Concrete Spans
—–11.37. Basic Allowable Stresses
—–11.38. Fatigue Design
—–11.39. Fracture Critical Members
—–11.40. Impact Test Requirements for Structural Steel
—–11.41. General Design Provisions
—–11.42. Compression Members
—–11.43. Stay Plates
—–11.44. Members Stressed Primarily in Bending
—–11.45. Other Considerations

Section 12. Beam and Girder Bridges

—–12.1. Characteristics of Beam Bridges
—–12.2. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Rolled-Beam Stringer Bridge
—–12.3. Characteristics of Plate-Girder Stringer Bridges
—–12.4. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Plate-Girder Bridge
—–12.5. Example—Load-Factor Design of Composite Plate-Girder Bridge
—–12.6. Characteristics of Curved Girder Bridges
—–12.7. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Curved Stringer Bridge
—–12.8. Deck Plate-Girder Bridges with Floorbeams
—–12.9. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Deck Plate-Girder Bridge with Floorbeams
—–12.10. Through Plate-Girder Bridges with Floorbeams
—–12.11. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of a Through Plate-Girder Bridge
—–12.12. Composite Box-Girder Bridges
—–12.13. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of a Composite Box-Girder Bridge
—–12.14. Orthotropic-Plate Girder Bridges
—–12.15. Example—Design of an Orthotropic-Plate Box-Girder Bridge
—–12.16. Continuous-Beam Bridges
—–12.17. Allowable-Stress Design of Bridge with Continuous, Composite Stringers
—–12.18. Example—Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Composite Plate-Girder Bridge

Section 13. Truss Bridges

—–13.1. Specifications
—–13.2. Truss Components
—–13.3. Types of Trusses
—–13.4. Bridge Layout
—–13.5. Deck Design
—–13.6. Lateral Bracing, Portals, and Sway Frames
—–13.7. Resistance to Longitudinal Forces
—–13.8. Truss Design Procedure
—–13.9. Truss Member Details
—–13.10. Member and Joint Design Examples-LFD and SLD
—–13.11. Member Design Example-LRFD
—–13.12. Truss Joint Design Procedure
—–13.13. Skewed Bridges
—–13.14. Truss Bridges on Curves
—–13.15. Truss Supports and Other Details
—–13.16. Continuous Trusses

Section 14. Arch Bridges

—–14.1. Types of Arches
—–14.2. Arch Forms
—–14.3. Selection of Arch Type and Form
—–14.4. Comparison of Arch with Other Bridge Types
—–14.5. Erection of Arch Bridges
—–14.6. Design of Arch Ribs and Ties
—–14.7. Design of Other Elements
—–14.8. Examples of Arch Bridges
—–14.9. Guidelines for Preliminary Designs and Estimates
—–14.10. Buckling Considerations for Arches
—–14.11. Example-Design of Tied-Arch Bridge

Section 15. Cable-Suspended Bridges

—–15.1. Evolution of Cable-Suspended Bridges
—–15.2. Classification of Cable-Suspended Bridges
—–15.3. Classification and Characteristics of Suspension Bridges
—–15.4. Classification and Characteristics of Cable-Stayed Bridges
—–15.5. Classification of Bridges by Span
—–15.6. Need for Longer Spans
—–15.7. Population Demographics of Suspension Bridges
—–15.8. Span Growth of Suspension Bridges
—–15.9. Technological Limitations to Future Development
—–15.10. Cable-Suspended Bridges for Rail Loading
—–15.11. Specifications and Loadings for Cable-Suspended Bridges
—–15.12. Cables
—–15.13. Cable Saddles, Anchorages, and Connections
—–15.14. Corrosion Protection of Cables
—–15.15. Statics of Cables
—–15.16. Suspension-Bridge Analysis
—–15.17. Preliminary Suspension-Bridge Design
—–15.18. Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges
—–15.19. Cable-Stayed Bridge Analysis
—–15.20. Preliminary Design of Cable-Stayed Bridges
—–15.21. Aerodynamic Analysis of Cable-Suspended Bridges
—–15.22. Seismic Analysis of Cable-Suspended Structures
—–15.23. Erection of Cable-Suspended Bridges