Elastic Flexural Buckling of Frames

In Arts. 3.41 and 3.42, elastic instabilities of isolated columns and beams are discussed.
Most structural members, however, are part of a structural system where the ends of the members are restrained by other members. In these cases, the instability of the system governs the critical buckling loads on the members. It is therefore important that frame behavior be incorporated into stability analyses. For details on such analyses, see T. V. Galambos, Guide to Stability of Design of Metal Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York; S. Timoshenko and J. M. Gere, Theory of Elastic Stability, and F. Bleich, Buckling Strength of Metal Structures, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York