Structural Steel

Welding Positions

The position of the stick electrode relative to the joint when a weld is being made affects welding economy and quality. In addition, AWS specifications D1.0 and D1.5 prohibit use of some welding positions for some types of welds. Careful designing should eliminate the need for welds requiring prohibited welding positions and employ welds that can be efficiently made.
The basic welding positions are as follows:
Flat, with face of weld nearly horizontal. Electrode is nearly vertical, and welding is performed from above the joint.
Horizontal, with axis of weld horizontal. For groove welds, the face of weld is nearly vertical. For fillet welds, the face of weld usually is about 45 relative to horizontal and vertical surfaces.
Vertical, with axis of weld nearly vertical. (Welds are made upward.)
Overhead, with face of weld nearly horizontal. Electrode is nearly vertical, and welding is performed from below the joint.
Where possible, welds should be made in the flat position. Weld metal can be deposited faster and more easily. Generally, the best and most economical welds are obtained. In a shop, the work usually is positioned to allow flat or horizontal welding. With care in design, the expense of this positioning can be kept to a minimum. In the field, vertical and overhead welding sometimes may be necessary. The best assurance of good welds in these positions is use of proper electrodes by experienced welders.
The AWS specifications require that only the flat position be used for submerged-arc
welding, except for certain sizes of fillet welds. Single-pass fillet welds may be made in the flat or the horizontal position in sizes up to 5⁄16 in with a single electrode and up to 1⁄2 in with multiple electrodes. Other positions are prohibited.
When groove-welded joints can be welded in the flat position, submerged-arc and gas
metal-arc processes usually are more economical than the manual shielded metal-arc process.

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